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Judo

Judo
Ippon (outright victory). Photo by Kurt Nordstrom from his page on the web resource Flickr


Русская версия


Final bouts in Athens (2004)



Noriko Anno from Japan (blue) scored ippon with sode-tsuri-komi-goshi againts Liu Xia from China, category 78kg. Anno won.
Judo Athens. Photo by David Finch




Yvonne Boenisch from Germany (white) against Kye Sun Hui from North Korea, category 57kg. Boenisch won.
German Embassy in Washington, DC




Ruoko Tani from Japan (blue) against Frederique Jossinet from France, catgory 48kg. Tani won.
Judo Photos. Photo by David Finch




Ayumi Tanimoto from Japan (white) against Claudia Heill from Austria, category 63kg. Tanimoto won.
BJV Judo




Dayma Beltran of Cuba (blue) is taken down by Maki Tsukada of Japan (white) in the women's judo +78 kg class gold medal contest. Tsukada won.
Athens 2004




Masae Ueno from Japan (white) against Edith Bosch from Netherlands, category 70kg. Ueno won.
Xinhua


Kids in training



Judo Photos. Photo by David Finch


Athens medal winners



48kg

Ruoko Tani
(Japan)

Frederique Jossinet
(France)

Gao Feng
(China)


52kg

Dongmei Xian
(China)

Yuki Yokosawa
(Japan)

Amarilys Savon
(Cuba)

Ilse Heylen
(Belgium)


57kg

Yvonne Boenisch
(Germany)

Kye Sun Hui
(North Korea)

Yurisleidy Lupetey
(Cuba)

Deborah Gravenstijn
(Netherlands)


63kg

Ayumi Tanimoto
(Japan)

Claudia Heill
(Austria)

Urska Zolnir
(Slovenia)

Driulys Gonzalez
(Cuba)


70kg

Masae Ueno
(Japan)

Edith Bosch
(Netherlands)

Dongya Qin
(China)

Annett Boehm
(Germany)


78kg

Noriko Anno
(Japan)

Liu Xia
(China)

Yurisel Laborde
(Cuba)

Lucia Morica
(Italy)


Over 78kg

Maki Tsukada
(Japan)/p>

Daima Mayelis Beltran
(Cuba)

Tea Donguzashvili
(Russia)

Fuming Sun
(China)

Judo (Japanese: "gentle way") is a martial art, sport, and philosophy originated in Japan. Judo belongs to "no-hit" form of oriental martial arts, it was developed from the ancient Japanese martial art, Jiu-jitsu, and was founded by Dr. Jigoro Kano in 1882. The sport became the model of the modern Japanese martial arts ("gendai budo" *).

Final bouts in Sydney (2000)



Isabelle Fernandez, from Spain (white) throws Driulys Gonzalez from Cuba, category 57kg. Fernandez won.
Games Gallery




Yuan Hua from China (white) against Daima Mayelis Beltran from Cuba, category over 78kg. Hua won. Olympics




Tang Lin from China (white) against Celine Lebrun from France, category 78kg. Lin won.
People's Daily




Sibelis Veranes from Cuba (white) against Kate Howey from Great Britain, category 70kg. Veranes won.
"TWOJ"




Legna Verdecia from Cuba defeated Noriko Narazaki from Japan by ippon, category 52kg.
Games Info. Photo by Clive Brunskill/Allsport


Russian judoka in actions



Irina Rodina (white) against Tea Donguzashvili. International Cup, 2004
Info Sport



Olga Sonina attacks Sophie Cox (Great Britain) at the European Championship in Rotterdam (2005)
Judo Photos. Photo by David Finch


Sydney medal winners


48kg

Ryoko Tamura
(Japan)

Lubov Bruletova
(Russia)

Anna-Maria Gradante
(Germany)

Ann Simons
(Belgium)


52kg

Legna Verdecia
(Cuba)

Noriko Narazaki
(Japan)

Sun Hui Kye
(Korea)

Liu Yuxiang
(China)


56kg

YIsabelle Fernandez
(Spain)

Driulys Gonzalez
(Cuba)

Maria Pekli
(Austria)

Kie Kusakabe
(Japan)


63kg

Severine Vandenhende
(France)

Li Shufang
(China)

Jung Sung-Sook
(Korea)

Gella Vandecaveye
(Belgium)


70kg

Sibelis Veranes
(Cuba)

Kate Howey
(Great Britain)

Ylenia Scapin
(Italy)

Cho Min-Sun
(Korea)


78kg

Tang Lin
(China)

Celine Lebrun
(France)

Emanuela Pierantozzi
(Italy)

Simona Marcela Richter
(Romania)


Over 78kg

Yuan Hua
(China)/p>

Daima Mayelis Beltran
(Cuba)

Mayumi Yamashita
(Japan)

Kim Seon-Young
(Korea)

The judo rules are quite complex and dealing with specific Japanese terminology. Judo contestants (called judokas) compete in a loose uniform judogi (sometimes incorrectly called kimono) on a special mat (tatami). Contestants start standing gripping each other by the judogi in attempts to throw an opponent down and/or to accomplish other techniques on the ground (locks, chokes, pins, etc.). Simplistically, there are several positions when a outright victory is announced: throw from standing position keeping on foot, 25-second pin, forcing an opponent to give up by a lock or a choke. Otherwise, a winner is determined according to total gotten scores for techniques. Sometimes just one technique may bring a victory (the highest technique grade is called "wasary").

In the 20th century judo became very attractive to women - it was the very first official Olympic combat sport, in which women started participating. Women's Judo competitions (as men's ones) are purely athletic and non-commercial events organizing in accordance to the strict rules and rituals (bows and yells).

Judoka are ranked according to skill and knowledge of judo, that grade being reflected in the belt color. There are two divisions of grades, the student grades (kyu), and the master grades (dan). In different counries slightly different colors are used but almost everywhere the spectrum ranges from white to black. Some European countries additionally use a red belt to signify a complete beginner. In Japan, all adult kyu grades wear either white or brown belts. All dan grades may wear the black belt; holders of dans from sixth through eighth may alternately wear a red-and-white belt, while those ranked ninth and higher dan may wear a solid red belt. Historically, a woman's belt had a white stripe at its centre in some countries, while in most of them this habit has been discontinued. Jigoro Kano was the inventor of the kyu - dan grading system, that soon got adapted by other martial arts such as Karate and Taekwondo.

In most Western countries, Judokas have to pass an exam which is normally assesed by the Sensei (Teacher) within the Dojo. Judokas also have to compete in a grading competition against people of a similar grade. Once both parts have been completed it is possible for a Judoka to be promoted. The dan (black belt) ranks are awarded after doing an exam supervised by independent judges of the national judo association.

Judoka wear cotton uniforms (usually white) called Judogi (which means Judo uniform in Japanese) for practicing Judo. This judogi was created at the Kodokan and similar uniforms were later adopted by many other martial arts. The judogi consists of white cotton drawstring pants and a white quilted cotton jacket fastened by a colored belt indicative of kyu or dan rank. The jacket is intended to withstand the stresses of throwing and grappling, and is as a result much thicker than that of a karategi. Before competition, a blue judogi is assigned to one judoka per match for ease of distinction by judges and referee. In some matches, when there are not enough blue judogis availible, one judoka may be given a colored sash or alternately colored belt to differentiate him/her-self from the other. Competitors are identified by colors and points are awarded to a color, not to a person - corner judges on the corners of the mat have colored flags to indicate to which competitor a point should go when it is unclear whom it should be awarded to. In addition to men's' uniform, female judokas put on a special shirt under the jacket fitting the body snugly (and wearing a bra under it). So, during a contest when the jacket is unavoidably tattered, the chest keeps being covered.

Judo assumes that there are two main phases of combat: the standing phase (tachi waza) and the ground phase (newaza). Each phase requires its own mostly separate techniques and strategies, although some special training is devoted to 'transitional' techniques to bridge the gap. To be successful, Judoka must be balanced between the two.
The Standing Phase. In the standing phase, which is considered the initial phase, the opponents try to throw each other to the ground. Even though standing joint-lock and choke/strangulation submission techniques are legal in the standing phase, they are quite rare due to the fact that they are much harder to apply standing than throws are. Some judoka, however, are very skilled in combining takedowns with submissions, where a submission technique is begun standing and finished on the ground. The main purpose of the throwing techniques (nage waza) is to take an opponent who is standing on his/her feet, mobile and dangerous, down onto his/her back where he/she cannot move any more. Thus, the main reason for throwing the opponent is to control him/her and put yourself in a dominant position above him/her where you have more potential to inflict damage on the opponent than the opponent does on you. Be that as it may, another reason to throw the opponent is to shock his/her body through smashing him/her forcefully onto the ground. A judoka having executed a powerful yet fully controlled throw, can win a match outright due to the theory that he/she has displayed enough superiority. In actual fact, this kind of victory is very difficult to achieve if the opponents are equally matched. Therefore points are given for lesser throws in the standing phase of combat.

The Ground Phase. In the ground phase, which is considered the secondary phase of combat, the opponents try to hold, or get the opponent to get submittesd either by using arm locks (leg locks are not allowed) or by chokes and strangulations.

Pins.Pins are considered to be an important winning technigue - if a pin is held for 25 seconds, the person doing the pinning wins the match. If you pin your opponent for less than 25 seconds you get points depending on how long, with the minimum being 10 seconds. In fact, it's not easy at all to hold a pin for a while - if the person you are holding down has wrapped his/her legs around any part of your lower body or your trunk, he/she is pinning you as much as you are pinning him/her since you cannot get up and flee unless he/she lets go. Also, to make things even worse for you, there are various attacking techniques your opponent can launch against you from this position, which is called Do-osae (body squeeze) in Japanese and The Guard in English.

Joint Locks. Elbow locks are considered safe-enough to do at nearly full-force to induce a submission. In times past, Judo allowed many other joints to be attacked too such as the knees, spine and others. Over the years it was discovered that attacking those other joints would not only result in many injuries to the athletes, but also would gradually wear the joints down over time. Even so, some Judoka still enjoy learning and fighting each other informally using these banned techniques. Joint locks are effective combat techniques since they enable you to control your opponent through pain-compliance. For these reasons Judo considers joint locks to be important techniques.

Chokes/Strangulations. Chokes/strangulations are the most effective Judo's submission techniques. The general description of choking techniques in Kodokan Judo by Jigoro Kano is "you use your hands, arms, or legs on the opponent's collar or lapels to apply pressure to his neck or throat."

In Judo practice there are three basic ways of choking or strangling an opponent, as well as some combinations of the three:

- Compression of the carotid arteries on one or both sides of the neck restricting the flow of blood and oxygen to the opponent's brain.

- Compression of the windpipe (trachea) stopping or reducing the flow of air to the opponent's lungs.

- Compression of the chest and lungs preventing the opponent from inhaling (often used during pinning techniques).

Being very effective, chokes/strangulation techniques are the dedliest as well - they might enable the one applying the choke to force the adversary into unconsciousness and even death.

Fighting. Judo emphasizes wrestling (randori) as its main form of training. Actual fighting, albeit within safety rules, is considered to be much more effective than only practicing techniques, since fighting full-strength develops the muscles and cardio-vascular system on the physical side of things, and it develops strategy and reaction time on the mental side of things.

Judo's Balanced Approach to Fighting. Body equilibration and balance between both the standing and ground phases of combat are very important Judo concepts. It gives judoka the ability to take down opponents who are standing up and then pin and submit them on the ground. This balanced theory of combat has made Judo a popular choice for many.

Judo is often declared as a self-defense art because its techniques are based on usage of an opponent's moves. But it is the fact that judo skills are successfully used in MMA extreme fighting in which judokas demonstrate good abilities to fight in free style. In other words, you can attack using judo skills intercepting any opponent's move even not aggressive (or provoke it).

Judo is the oldest form of Olympic female combat sport. It played a role of an "icebreaker" that broke the bias against female combative activities. In fact, it's not obvious why it was Judo which became the first combative sport widely popular amongst women. Probably, one of the reasons is that a judoka wears a loose kimono, which fully covers body, doesn't impede to fight and allows gripping an opponent by clothing rather than by body parts. Besides, loose judogi hides possible embarrassing fluttering of breasts, hips and fat wrinkles. These circumstances seemed to be important for women at the times when women's judo began rising. Perhaps, these are the reason why super heavyweight women (weighing up to 150kg) successfully participate in judo, whereas the heaviest female free-style wrestler is barely heavier than 70-75kg. Examples: Svetlana Gundarenko and Irina Rodina, not only judo and sambo champions but winners of MMA extreme fighting tournaments. As the society is getting rid of gender inequalities and women's sport is intensively developed, women are getting strong positions in other grappling sports, first of all, in freestyle wrestling. If judo is compared to freestyle wrestling in respect to fascinating spectators, it must be said that even though judogi doesn't allow spectators to feast eyes upon wrestler body dynamics, it allows accomplishing spectacular throws with such swings that would be impossible if wrestlers do not use clothing for grips.

Jigoro Kano, the inventor of the sport of Judo was also a founder of female Judo. First female competitions were held in 1925 in the Kodokan school. However, not Japanese women became pioneers in development of Judo but European and American female athletes did who practiced in Judo in gyms beginning at 190s. Nonetheless, until the WWII women's wrestling was misapprehended and significant efforts of enthusiasts was made in order to make Judo an official women's sport. The first European championship was held just in 1975 and the first world championship - in 1980. In 1988 in Seoul, women's Judo became a demonstrating Olympic sport and in 1992, women's judo became part of the Olympic Games. Japanese women came into the sport later than their western fellows. In the first seven World Championships where women competed (from 1980 through 1991) Japanese women only earned one gold medal. This was caused by the old Japanese traditions keeping women from practicing in martial arts. Japanese women started playing Judo as soon as they realized other women had been into it.

Today judo is one of the most popular sports among women. Even in Muslim countries, some women practice judo and participate in international competitions.


Grips

Rules related to grips are primarily motivated by the desire to avoid stalling, to avoid providing undue advantage, or to reduce the chance of injury. Deliberately avoiding gripping is not permitted. In a standing position, it is not permitted to take any grip other than a "normal" grip for more than three to five seconds without attacking. A "normal" grip is one where the right hand grips some part of the left hand side of the opponent's jacket (and the left hand grips some part of the right hand side of the opponent's jacket.) A non-normal grip may involve grabbing the belt, or the trousers, or the wrong side of the jacket.[10] (A non-"standard" grip is one that does not involve the traditional sleeve/collar grip. There are no time-limits related to non-"standard" grips as long as they are not non-"normal".) A "pistol grip" on the opponent's sleeve is not permitted. It is not permitted to insert the fingers inside the opponent's sleeve opening or trousers opening at any time. You are permitted to insert your fingers inside your own gi openings. Biting the opponent's gi is prohibited, as it grants another gripping point. Since 2009, it is not permitted to grab the legs or trousers, initially.

Scoring

Awarding of ippon 'One full point'. Award of ippon decides the winner and ends the match. Awarding of waza-ari. 'One half point'. When Two waza-ari are awarded in the same match, it is considered to be same as ippon and the match ends (the judge exclaims 'Waza-ari, awasete ippon') Awarding of yuko. One score of waza-ari is considered greater than any number of yuko scores. Yuko is currently the smallest score that can be awarded. Awarding of koka. Was introduced in 1975 and removed from IJF competition at the end of 2008. Any number of koka scores does not add up to a yuko score.

Penalties

Two types of penalties may be awarded. A shido is awarded for minor rule infringements. A shido can also be awarded for a prolonged period of non-aggression. Each time a contestant is awarded a shido, the other contestant gets points according to how many shidos the opponent has, as if he had scored them himself. For the first shido a warning is given to the offending party (this replaces the previous practice of awarding a Koka), after that the opponent will yuko, waza-ari and ippon respectively for each shido attained (if the opponent has a waza-ari, and receives another from the opponent's shidos, he wins the match). After four shidos are given, the victory is given to the opponent, this is an indirect hansoku-make, and does not result in expulsion from the tournament. The penalty of hansoku make is awarded for major rule infringements, or for accumulating four shidos. If hansoku make is awarded for a major rule infringement, it results not just in loss of the match, but in expulsion from the tournament.


*) Gendai Budo means "Modern martial arts" in Japanese. Besides Judo, Gendai Budo refers to Aikido, Jukendo, Iaido, Karate, Kendo, Kyudo, Naginatajutsu, and Shorinji kempo, which were established after the Meiji Restoration (1868) in Japan. Gendai budo often have origins in koryu (koryu bujutsu), or traditional martial arts. For example, Jigoro Kano founded judo in part as an attempt to systematize the myriad traditions of jiu-jitsu which existed at the time.


Videoclips

Judo Ippon Highlights at 2005 All Women's Championship


Heavyweight matches


Irina Rodina defeats Svetlana Bozhilova in the 78kg category



Daima Beltran defeats Irina Rodina in the open category



Christine Cicot defeats Svetlana Gundarenko in the open category



London Olympics. Gold Medal Match of the -78kg category.
Kayla Harrison defeats Gemma Gibbons
Includes medal ceremony. Taken far away on iPhone


Animations. Episodes from "Tre Torre" torunaments in Italy. Throws

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Grips and throws

>> Combative activities

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