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Jiu-Jitsu and Gi-Grappling

Jiu-Jitsu


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The art of Jujitsu (also known as Jiu-Jitsu, Ju-Jutsu, Tai-Jutsu, Yawara and Yawara-Ge) has its roots in feudal Japan and is based on the principle that the soft conquers the hard. Jiu-Jitsu ("soft art" in Japanese) is one of the oldest forms of Japanese martial arts which history goes back many centuries to the past. It is a forefather of many martial arts Judo, Aikido, Karate, and Sambo.

Jujitsu exponents utilize the following different skill sets (sometimes in combination, sometimes not) to tackle an aggressor: blocking, joint lock techniques, strikes, throws and sweeps, as well as ground fighting/grappling skills.

As a matter of fact, originally Jujitsu was a real Martial Art in the literal sense of this word; in other words, it was a set of techniques which a warrior utilized during warfare. The main goal of this martial art was to disarm the enemy, to tackle him and most likely to kill or mutilate him.

The contemporary tradition calls the classic form of this Martial Art as Jujitsu while the modern sports as Jiu-Jitsu

Some history

Jujitsu was developed alongside other disciplines such as archery and swordsmanship and was a way a warrior could defend himself against an opponent with a weapon in full armor, even if he himself was disarmed. Jiu-Jitsu battle

There once lived in Nagasaki a physician named Akiyama Yoshitoki, who went to China to study medicine. There he learned an art called hakuda which consisted of kicking and striking, differing, we may note, from jujutsu, which is mainly seizing and throwing. Akiyama learned three methods of this hakuda and 28 ways of recovering a man from apparent death. Later, he discovered 303 different methods of the art. One day during a snowstorm he observed a willow tree whose branches were covered with snow. Unlike the pine tree, which stood erect and broke before the storm, the willow yielded to the weight of snow on its branches, but did not break under it. In this way, he reflected jujutsu must be practiced. So he named his school Yoshin-ruū, the spirit of the willow-tree-school. "Gentleness defeats evil", - he exclaimed. By the late Edo Period, Akiyama Yoshin-ruū and its descendants had spread all over Japan.

Jujutsu first began during the Sengoku period of the Muromachi period combining various Japanese martial arts which were used on the battlefield for close combat in situations where weapons were ineffective. In contrast to the neighboring nations of China and Okinawa whose martial arts were centered around striking techniques, Japanese hand-to-hand combat forms focused heavily upon throwing, immobilizing, joint locks and choking as striking techniques were ineffective towards someone wearing armor on the battlefield. The original forms of jujutsu such as Takenouchi-ryū also extensively taught parrying and counterattacking long weapons such as swords or spears via a dagger or other small weapon.

The first recognized school (ruū) that taught only jujitsu moves opened in 1532, founded by Master Takenouchi Hisamori. The Takenouchi-ruū taught the art of seizing (Kogusoku) and though it was different from the style as it is taught today, it is usually considered to be the foundation of the modern art.

The art of jujitsu developed further from the 17th century when many samurai warriors were no longer able to make an income from war as the country had begun a period of prolonged civil rest, known as the Edo period (1603 1868). Swords and other weapons were banned for all but the samurai so martial arts schools that taught unarmed combat techniques grew in popularity throughout the period.

The martial art continued to develop, becoming less and less dependent on weapons. The art relied on striking, throwing, restraining, evading, bending, and escaping. A weighted chain, a dagger, or a weapon called a helmet smasher were used with the martial art to enhance the Samurais chance of winning in a battle.

Chin Genpin, a priest from China who emigrated to Japan, was an important figure in the development of jujitsu. He began teaching kicking and striking techniques at the Kokushij Temple in Tokyo, where amongst his students were three ronin (masterless samurai), Fukuno Schichiroemon, Yoshin Miura and Isogai, all of whom founded their own schools.

Jujitsu developed into a more systematic art form under these and other masters during this time and at the height of early Jujitsu practice, the country had over seven hundred ruū.

Jujitsu in the Early Modern Era

From 1868, power shifted in Japan from the military dictator < a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shogun " target=new>Shogun to the Emperor in what became known as the Meiji Restoration and an Imperial ordinance from 1871 meant that many aspects of samurai culture were banned, including the practice of martial arts.

A few masters that continued the teaching of Jujitsu during the latter half of the 19th century either moved away from the country or were forced to train in secret, passing their knowledge on to a single or select group of trusted students.

In the early 20th century, the world of Jujitsu split when many of the schools merged with the new martial art, Judo (the gentle way), created by Jigoro Kano. Judo took many of the less dangerous Jujitsu moves and was adapted for a more modern way of fighting, with greater emphasis on the sport and exercise elements of the martial arts.

Around the same time, Morihei Ueshiba created the art of aikido, basing his new system on a different set of Jujitsu techniques, in particular the wrist and arm locks.

Under the American occupation of Japan after the Second World War, many styles of fighting were again banned because of their potential link with militarism. This lasted until 1951, when the occupation ended and the art of Jujitsu began to flourish once more in its country of origin, as well as a number of other countries around the world.

In the 20th century Jujitsu was discovered as a perfect system for women's self-defense: between 1900 and 1940, women appear to be over-represented in Jujitsu textbooks, articles, adverts and videos.

Contemporary forms of Jujitsu (Jiu-Jitsu)

Circa 1600 AD there were over 2000 ruū (schools) of Jujitsu in Japan and there were common features that are characterized of most of them. The technical characteristics varied from school to school. Jiu-Jitsu

Because Jujitsu contains so many facets, it has become the foundation for a variety of styles and derivations today. As each instructor incorporated new techniques and tactics into what was taught to him originally, he could codify and create his own ruū (school). Some of these schools modified the source material so much that they no longer considered themselves a style of Jujitsu. And the other way around: some new styles quite far from Jujitsu are identified themselves as Jujitsu. (As modern versions of Jujitsu are considered, we will call them Jiu-Jitsu.)

Some schools went on to diverge into present day Karate, and Aiki styles. The last Japanese divergence occurred in 1905 where a number of Jiu-Jitsu schools joined the Kodokan. The syllabi of those schools were unified under Jigoro Kano to form Jiu-Do (or Judo).

Modern Judo is the classic example of a sport, which was derived from Jiu-Jitsu. Another layer removed, some popular arts had instructors who studied one of these Jiu-Jitsu derivatives and later made their own derivative succeed in competition. This created an extensive family of martial arts and sports which can trace their lineage to Jiu-Jitsu in some part. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu has dominated the TV grappling competitions, as the rules of such competitions favor that style of grappling.

The way an opponent is dealt with is also dependent on the philosophy of the teacher with regard to combat. This translates also in different styles or schools of Jiu-Jitsu.

There is one more serious reason of the diversity of Jiu-Jitsu schools - every conceivable technique, including biting, hairpulling, eyegouging etc. is allowed in the old Jiu-Jitsu (unlike for instance Judo, which does not place emphasis on punching or kicking tactics, or Karate, which does not heavily emphasize grappling and throwing). So, Jiu-Jitsu practitioners (Jutsukas) have an unlimited choice of techniques (assuming they are proficient).

A Japanese based martial system formulated in modern times (post Tokugawa) that is only partially influenced by traditional Nihon Jiu-Jitsu, is correctly referred to as Goshin Jiu-Jitsu. (Goshin means self-defense.) Goshin Jiu-Jitsu is usually formulated outside Japan and may include influences from other martial traditions. All Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu styles in general, although derived originally from Judo have evolved independently for many years, and could be considered examples of Goshin Jiu-Jitsu.

After the transplantation of traditional Japanese Jiu-Jitsu to the West, many of these more traditional styles underwent a process of adaptation at the hands of Western practitioners, molding the arts of Jiu-Jitsu to suit western culture in its myriad varieties. There are today many distinctly westernized styles of Jiu-Jitsu that stick to their Japanese roots to varying degrees. There are also a number of relatively new martial systems identifying themselves as Jiu-Jitsu.

Throw techniques and physical impact on human joints are the major particular features of this combative sport (which brings this form closer to Sambo including its applied version martial Sambo). The important part of the sport is strike technique which main functions are to stop an opponent, prepare a moment for a throw, move off his/her balance and execute choke or submission. The special part of Jiu-Jitsu deals with sticks and plain weapon. This substantial part of martial arts is called "Kobudo".

Jiu-Jitsu resembles Judo: the participants wear kimono, they start from standing and use Judo throws and takedowns. Instead of striving for a pin, once both opponents are on the ground they use a variety of chokes, joint locks and submissions, gaining points and advantages for advancing their position on their opponent. For instance, you would receive points for mounting someone where you are in an obviously superior position. Jiu-Jitsu employs no strikes or kicks. In any fight, it is vital to know how to defend and control your attacker from the ground, where the most fights end up anyway.

Training 'accidents' often happened in feudal Japan. It was not uncommon for samurai to die in the dojo (training room). Judo came about because the Japanese government required the dissolution of the Samurai class. It was no longer considered suitable for martial arts training in modern Japan to result in fatalities, so Jigoro Kano was commissioned to devise an alternative training system. He devised a system without many of the dangerous techniques known to result in serious training injuries. Judo was the result of many systems of Jiu-Jitsu combined. Those systems whose instructors were not in favor of Kano's amalgamation remained aloof from it. However, many school joined Kano, bringing their techniques with them into Judo's fold. Others chose to develop their systems for the modern world such as Karate and Aikido.

As it was said, Jiu-Jitsu was not meant for use in sporting contest, but for practical use in the Samurai world (which ended circa 1890). Techniques like hairpulling and eye poking were and are not considered conventionally acceptable to use in sport, thus they are not included in Judo competitions or randori. Judo did, however, preserve the more lethal, dangerous techniques in its kata. The kata were intended to be practiced by students of all grades, but now are mostly practiced formally as complete set-routines for performance, kata competition, and grading, rather than as individual self-defense techniques in class. However, Judo retained the full set of choking and strangling techniques for its sporting form, and all manner of elbow locks. Even Judo's pinning techniques have pain-generating, spine-and-rib-squeezing and smothering aspects. A submission induced by a legal pin is considered a fully legitimate way to win. It should also be noted that Kano viewed the safe sport-fighting aspect of Judo an important part of learning how to actually control an opponent's body in a real fight. Kano always considered Judo to be a form of, and a development of, Jiu-Jitsu.

Classic Jiu-Jitsu differs from Judo in a number of ways. In both systems, kuzushi (the art of breaking balance) is essential in order to use as little energy as possible during a fight. A Judo technique starts with gripping of your opponent followed by off-balancing an opponent, fitting into the space created, and then applying the technique. In contrast, kuzushi is attained in Jiu-Jitsu by blocking, parrying or deflecting an opponent's attack in order to create the space required to apply a throwing technique. A Jutsuka generates kuzushi by striking one's opponent along his weak line. Other methods of generating kuzushi include grabbing, twisting, or poking areas of the body known as atemi points or pressure points (areas of the body where nerves venture close to the surface of the skin). Lady Jiu-Jitsu

At the present time there are two the most widespread Jiu-Jitsu modifications (particularly among women). The first is "BJJ" standing for Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (in fact, derived mostly from Judo). Built around the concept of "going to the ground" and using only what works, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu has built a huge worldwide following. Participants are wearing a kimono. Throws, chokes, submissions like ankle locks and arm bars are all legal. This type of Jiu-Jitsu is very technical, there are many different ways to tie up and control another person's limbs with grips on their kimono, using those grips then to gain leverage and sweep or reverse, submit and dominate. The second form derived from Jiu-Jitsu is grappling (submission wrestling). This is practiced without a kimono, favoring wrestling takedowns to deliver your opponents to the mats. On the ground, often a larger variety of ankle locks like knee bars and toeholds are allowed, neck cranks, submissions, scissors, sweeps and reversals are all kosher. The judging system is generally in favor of the person in the match that tries the greatest number of submissions and is obviously more aggressive. Without the kimono on, the two players can enjoy moving quickly from move to move and slipping out of positions more easily. This creates a very fast, exciting fight to watch.


Founders of womens' Jiu-Jitsu

As far as combat sports and martial arts are concerned, women have a long history of participating in them: from Spartan female wrestlers to British female pugilists. But those cases were extremely rare and usually considered ether as legends or as abnormality.

In the end-19th and early-20th centuries the women's rights movement penetrated all aspects of life including athletic activities. Once women got beyond domestic deals, they realized - among other things - needs in self-defense skills and physical exercises. Popular at that time combat sports like boxing and wrestling didn't attract women due to the violent character of these sports; besides, casual and athletic uniform needed for those sports was known then only for males.

Japanese martial art Jiu-Jitsu brought by enthusiasts to Europe and North America in 1890s was instantly considered as appropriate and suitable for women and even feminine. The very concept of this art - manipulating the opponent's force against himself rather than confronting him with your own force - allowed a smaller person to prevail over bigger and stronger attacker.

It was Jiu-Jitsu which became the first combat sport getting widespread among women long before the first women's combat sports were officially recognized. Actually, women practicing Jiu-Jitsu didn't look for glory or awards; they were practicing it to improve their bodies, to strengthen their spirit and to learn how to defend themselves. After all, they enjoyed doing that. Unlike English and French wrestling, Jiu-Jitsu is not about overpowering someone with force; instead, you skillfully yield to your opponents movements and use their weight and strength in your favor.

Jiu-Jitsu became a kind of metaphor for the womens suffrage struggle, says Tony Wolf, one of the worlds top experts on archaic martial arts. Since the radical movement was small in numbers, 'Jujutsuffragettes' had to rely on skill and trickery to overpower the government

In early 20th century, London became a birthplace for the first widespread popular combat sport and self-defence system for women - Jiu-Jitsu was the name of this sport and self-defence system.

During the very early 20th century, it became fashionable for London ladies to host jujitsu parties in their parlors, often hiring expert instructors such as Yukio Tani to offer basic instruction in the Japanese art of unarmed combat. Women responding to invitation cards with the word wrestling discreetly printed in one corner would arrive to find the drawing-room furniture shifted away and large mats rolled out across the carpet. Donning uwagi (tough, short-sleeved linen jackets) and brightly-colored sashes, they would proceed to practice the throws, grips and counters that comprised the Art of Yielding."

Emily Diana Watts (18671968) was among the first female instructors of the Japanese art of jujitsu in the Western world. She was also an innovator in the field of physical culture. Born into a wealthy family in England during the latter Victorian era, she studied dance from a young age. Mrs Roger Watts Emily Watts also known by her married name as Mrs Roger Watts started learning Jiu-Jitsu around 1903. Her instructor was Sadakazu "Raku" Uyenishi, a first-rate martial artist who wrestled in London music halls, trained in a Jiu-Jutsu club at Golden Square in SoHo and published an excellent "Text Book of Ju-Jutsu as Practiced in Japan" (London: Athletic Publications, 1905).

Once Emily had developed a strong interest in jujitsu, she joined the Golden Square dojo of Sadakazu Uyenishi and Akitaro Ono. By 1906 she was teaching her own class of fifteen boys at Prince's Skating Rink in Knightsbridge on Montpelier Square. Then she also published her first book, The Fine Art of Jujitsu (London: William Heinemann, 1906). It was the first book to emphasize women's self-defense and women's martial arts. It also was the first book, written in English, on Jiu-Jitsu by a woman. In her book Emily used techniques of then new school of Kodokan.

While the photographs illustrating the book suggest that her techniques were nothing special, the book itself is interesting for two reasons. First, what Watts was showing was not partner-assisted stretching, but honest-to-goodness techniques. Second, the introduction by Her Grace the Duchess of Bedford and the preface by Sir Lauder Brunton, MD, D.Sc., LLD Edinburgh, LLD Aberdeen, FRS, indicate the social class toward which the expensively bound and lavishly illustrated hardback was directed. By the way, the Duchess of Bedford, who was a Jiu-Jitsu enthusiast, participated in sparring for the book photo session.

When Uyenishi left Britain in 1908, his student William Garrud took over teaching the men in the club at Golden Square while Garrud's wife Edith took over teaching the women and children. Edith & Willaim Garrud

In 1914 Watts produced another book, The Renaissance of the Greek Ideal, presenting an original system of callisthenic exercises inspired by ancient Greek statuary and artwork. On the strength of this work, she was inducted into the French 'Institute Marey' and the American Institute of Archeology. Watts spent much of the subsequent four decades touring the international lecture circuit, performing demonstrations of her system. It must have done her good because Mrs. Emily Diana Watts died in 1968 at the age of 101.

Her presentations put a new spin on both the fad for Grecian dance (exemplified by Isadora Duncan) and the traditional Victorian poses plastique. In displays of the latter type, athletes, often almost nude with their faces and bodies powdered with white makeup, would assume postures evocative of famous works of classical statuary. This form of visual theatre had been popularized by the famous strongman Eugen Sandow at the turn of the 20th century. '

As explained in The Renaissance of the Greek Ideal, her training system went well beyond simple public performance, comprising a detailed method of physical, mental and even spiritual development based on the principles of balance and dynamic tension. It was also promoted as an aid to longevity, turning the tide of middle age and restoring youthful poise and energy.

"I found for myself the Law of Balance in movement, the application of which allows of the greatest rapidity and force with the least expenditure of energy. This law requires the center of gravity of a moving body to be kept exactly and continuously over its base, an impossible achievement except under the condition of Tension already described."


Edith Margaret Garrud (18721971) was among the first female professional martial arts instructors in the Western world. She trained the Bodyguard unit of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in Jiu-Jitsu self-defense techniques. Edith Garrud

She was born Edith Margaret Williams in 1872 in Bath, Somerset. Five years later, her family moved to Wales, where she remained until circa 1893, when she married William Garrud, a physical culture instructor specializing in gymnastics, boxing and wrestling. They moved to London, where William found work as a physical culture trainer for several universities.

In 1899, the Garruds were introduced to the art of Jiu-Jitsu by Edward William Barton-Wright, the first Jiu-Jitsu teacher in Europe and the founder of the eclectic martial art of Bartitsu. The emphasis on skill to defeat and outwit a larger opponent was what first impressed Edith Garrud about Jiu-Jitsu. She came across it when her husband William attended a martial arts exhibition in 1899 and started taking lessons. Five years later, they became students at the Jiu-Jitsu school of the former Bartitsu Club instructor Sadakazu Uyenishi in Golden Square, Soho. In 1907, Edith was featured as the protagonist in a short film entitled Ju-jutsu Downs the Footpads, which was produced by the Pathe Film Company.

When Uyenishi returned to Japan in 1908, William took over as the owner and manager of the Golden Square school and Edith became the instructor of the women's and children's classes.

The Garruds popularized Jiu-Jitsu by performing numerous exhibitions throughout London and by writing articles for magazines. Beginning in 1908, Edith also taught classes open only to members of the Suffrage movement. From 1911, these classes were based at the Palladium Academy, a dance school in Argyll Street.

In January 1911, Edith Garrud choreographed the fight scenes for a polemic play entitled What Every Woman Ought to Know. Edith normally did the demonstrating, while William did the speaking. In August that year, one of her articles on women's self-defense was published in Health and Strength magazine.

In 1913, the Asquith government instituted the so-called Cat and Mouse Act whereby Suffragette leaders on hunger strikes could legally be released from jail in order to recover their health and then re-arrested on the original charge. The WSPU responded by establishing a thirty-member, all-woman protection unit referred to as "the Bodyguard", the "Jiu-Jitsuffragettes" and the "Amazons", to protect fugitive suffragettes from re-arrest. Edith Garrud became the trainer of the Bodyguard and taught them Jiu-Jitsu and the use of Indian clubs as defensive weapons. Their lessons took place in a succession of secret locations to avoid the attention of the police. The Bodyguard fought a number of well-publicized hand-to-hand combats with police officers who were attempting to arrest their leaders.

On several occasions they were also able to stage successful escapes and rescues, making use of tactics such as disguise and the use of decoys to confuse the police. A number of these incidents are described in the unpublished memoir of Bodyguard member Katherine "Kitty" Marshall, titled "Suffragette Escapes and Adventures". Journalists coined the term "suffrajitsu" - a portmanteau of "suffragette" and "Jiu-Jitsu" - to describe their techniques of self-defense, sabotage and subterfuge.

The Bodyguard was disbanded shortly after the onset of the First World War. WSPU leader Emmeline Pankhurst had decided to suspend militant suffrage actions and to support the British Government during the crisis, and therefore no longer required protection. Later life Edith and William Garrud continued to work as self-defense and Jiu-Jitsu instructors until 1925, when they sold their school and appear to have retired from public life.

Edith Garrud was a tiny woman. Measuring 4ft 11in (150cm) in height she appeared no match for the officers of the Metropolitan Police - required to be at least 5ft 10in (178cm) tall at the time. But she had a poweful secret weapon.

Actress Helena Bonham Carter who performed the main role in the 2015 movie "Suffragette", tried to look like Edith Garrud and insisted to name her character Edith. She said: "Edith was an amazing woman whose fighting method was not about brute force, it was about skill." Phoebe Roberts

It was this skill that helped the suffragettes take on powerful opponents. As Garrud recalled in an interview in 1965, a policeman once tried to prevent her from protesting outside Parliament. "Now then, move on, you can't start causing an obstruction here," he said. "Excuse me, it is you who are making an obstruction," she replied, and tossed him over her shoulder.

Alongside Edith Garrud and Emily Diana Watts, Phoebe Roberts (1887-1955) must be accounted as one of the first female Jiu-Jitsu practitioners and instructors in the Western world. She was certainly the youngest of them. Born in Blaina, Monmouthshire, Miss Roberts began training at the tender age of fifiteen at Sadakazu Uyenishi's dojo around 1903. Within a year or two she had started to teach classes at the Japanese School of Jiu-Jitsu in Oxford Street, which was operated by former Bartitsu Club instructor Yukio Tani and his colleague, Taro Miyake. Florence LeMar and Koe Gardiner

Miss Roberts also participated in numerous Jiu-Jitsu exhibitions circa 1906-08, demonstrating with many of the senior jiujitsuka active in the UK at that time, including Tani and Miyake, Akitaro Ono, Sadakazu Uyenishi and Yuzo Hirano. She was frequently billed as the Champion Lady Ju-Jitsu Wrestler of the World because she defeated another prominent jiujitsuka Lucy Weston in the British women's Jiu-Jitsu championships of 1906 and 1907.

Phoebe Roberts eventually married her teacher Yuzo Hirano and the couple settled in Portugal.

In fact, Phoebe Roberts appears to have been a professional pseudonym of Phoebe Laughton Parry for her work as a Jiu-Jitsu instructress and athlete.

In the beginning of the 20th century, there were many more Jiu-Jitsu practitioners and enthusiast in Britain, including famous actress Marie Studholme, who (wearing the uniform) in 1907 was shown in photos with Yukio Tani, and instructors at the Oxford Street Jiu-Jitsu school run by Tani and Taro Miyake, including Phoebe Roberts. As it was said, Emily Watts' friend and partner, Mary Russell, Duchess of Bedford, was another Jiu-Jitsu practitioner who was sparring with Emily Watts in the grounds of Woburn Abbey.

Florence Gardiner (stage name Florence "Flossie" LeMar) was another early Jiu-Jitsu enthusiast and advocate. She was married Joe Gardiner, an expatriate Englishman who worked as a professional wrestler. Joe is believed to have coached Florence in the skills of Jiu-Jitsu, which he may have learned while in England. In 1910s the two developed a theatrical performance in which Florence delivered a lecture on the benefits of Jiu-Jitsu as a means of self-defense and physical culture, especially for women and children, followed by a series of skits in which she demonstrated a variety of Jiu-Jitsu techniques against Joe, who played the role of the attacker. Described as being "a refined Vaudeville novelty for all the family", the act toured music halls and variety stages throughout Australia and New Zealand.

Jiu-Jitsu
Jiu-Jitsu Techniques from the book The Fine Art of Jujutsu by Mrs Roger Watts, 1906

First Female Jiu-Jitsu Practitioners and Advocates


Modern Jiu-Jitsu schools

After the transplantation of traditional Japanese Jiu-Jitsu to the West, many of these more traditional styles underwent a process of adaptation at the hands of Western practitioners, molding the art of Jiu-Jitsu to suit western culture in its myriad varieties. There are today many distinctly westernized styles of Jiu-Jitsu, that stick to their Japanese roots to varying degrees. Some of the largest post-reformation (founded post-1905) Jiu-Jitsu schools include (but are certainly not limited to these in that there are hundreds (possibly thousands), of new branches of Jiu-Jitsu):

Danzan-ryū
German ju-jutsu
Jigo Tensin ruū
Atemi Ju-Jitsu
Hakkō-ryū
Shorinji Kan Ju Jitsu
Small Circle JuJitsu

Sport Jiu-Jitsu / JJIF Rules

There are many types of Sports of Jiu-Jitsu. One version of Sport Jiu-Jitsu is known as "JJIF Rules Sports Ju-Jitsu", organized by Ju-Jitsu International Federation (JJIF), and has been recognized an official sport of the World Games. Ju-Jitsu was introduced as a World Games sport at the 1997 World Games in Lahti.

Sport Jiu-Jitsu comes in three main versions:

Duo (self-defense demonstration) where both the tori (attacker) and the uke (defender) come from the same team and demonstrate self-defense techniques. In this variant, there is a special system named Random Attacks, focusing on instilling quick reaction times against any given attack by defending and countering. The tori and the uke are also from the same team but here they don't know what the attack will be, which is given to the uke by the judges, without the tori's knowledge. This form of Jiu-Jitsu is similar to Karate Kata. Quite often Duo is played by a man and a woman from one team.

Fighting System (Freefighting) where competitors combine striking, grappling and submissions under rules which emphasise safety. Many of the potentially dangerous techniques such as scissor takedowns, necklocks and digital choking and locking are prohibited in Sport Jiu-Jitsu. There are a number of other styles of sport Jiu-Jitsu with varying rules.

With a different approach, the Fighting System is articulated in a tree minute combats between athletes from opposing teams. The system is divided in 12 categories according to weight and sex (male categories: -56kg, -62 kg, -69kg, -77kg, -85kg, -94kg, +94kg; female categories -49kg, -55kg, -62kg, -70kg, +70kg).
The actual combat is divided in three parts: Part I sees the Jutsukas involved in distance combat and controlled attacks with arms and legs. Once a grab has been made, the fight enters Part II and hits are no longer allowed. The Jutsukas try to bring one another down with various throwing techniques. Points are given according to how 'clean' and effective the actions are judged. Once down on the tatamis (mats), the match enters its Part III. Here points are given for immobilization techniques, controlled strangulations or levers on body joints that bring the opponent to yield. The winner is the Jutsuka who has accumulated most points during the fight or performed a perfect technique in all three Parts got scored by Ippon. In this case the fight will be ended before time ran out. This type of competition requires timing, agility, strength and endurance. BJJ

The fighting Jiu-Jitsu system is closed to MMA, except no-striking on the ground and limited fighting time. So, this fighting style can be considered as ennobled humanized form of 'no-barred hold' fighting. Fighters compete in semi-gloves. Fighting system is the oldest sport Jiu-Jitsu women's style.

Japanese/Ne-Waza (ground grappling) system in which competitors start standing up and work for a submission. Striking is not allowed. During the time of 6 minutes it is possible to gain points for throws, take down, controlling positions and actions giving you a advantage in the fight. This form of the sport of Jiu-Jitsu is close to BJJ.
Female weight categories: -55kg, -62kg, -70kg, +70kg.

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) / Gi Grappling

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu employs no strikes or kicks. Typical competitions in this Jiu-Jitsu form are divided into several belt categories and weight categories within each belt group. The belt ranks are the following: white, blue, violet, brown and black. At the beginning of a contest, opponents wearing Judo kimonos stand facing each other on tatami (soft wrestling mat). On the signal "fight!" the opponents try move to the ground using Judo-like throws, takedowns, sweeps, reversals or simply jump on top of the standing opponent and put legs around the opponents body in order to perform "passing guard" (special firm hold). Finding themselves on the ground they wrestle but its allowed rising at any moment. Rounds in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu last 10 minutes for white belt category and 12 minutes for the rest of categories. Judges dont stop fights and dont pull contestants apart even there is no visible moves. In Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu a strategy of expectancy is very important an appropriate moment for starting attack. Thats why experienced contestants dont rush with moves but wait until an opponent is tired or makes a mistake and then take opportunity for attacking.

In BJJ preference is done for style efficiency rather than a spectacular as it takes place in Judo and Sambo. For instance, a weaker wrestler might try to exhaust an opponent by a long hold and then more likely execute a final move (choke or submission). A fight is stopped though if one of opponents gives up announcing about that by knocking tatami or a body (opponents or own) by a hand. If nobody won in such unconditional way during the scheduled time the opponent is counted to be a winner who scored more points. Draw might also happen.

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Judo seem similar because they are. The Gracie family invented Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu by modifying the Judo they had previously learned. After several decades of developing in different directions, the two arts still have basic techniques in common. The differences primarily are in their fighting strategies. Founder of BJJ Mitsuyo Maeda was a student of in the school of Judo's 'father' Dr. Kano and, started a school in Rio which Carlos Gracie, Jr. joined as a kid. The skills he taught were based on what Dr. Kano had taken from the various forms of Japanese Jujitsu. The basics of both arts are the same, but what the Brazilians do now is what the Judokas call Ne-Waza (ground fighting), just a very advanced form of it, compared to what most Judokas do in class.

The basic strategy of Judo is to get an effective grip on the opponent, unbalance him so he can't resist or counter your technique and then throw him on the ground where he can no longer present a threat. This is a very direct and practical strategy for self-defense, so Judo players put most of their emphasis on fighting from a standing position and looking for the opportunity to get a throw. If both fighters end up on the ground, there are chokes and other submission techniques to win the fight from that position.

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu developed out of the ground-fighting aspect of Judo. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fighters see the initial throw as the beginning of the fight rather than the end of it, and will even allow themselves to be thrown if they can bring the opponent down with them. Once both fighters are on the ground, the Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fighter has an extensive repertoire of ground-fighting techniques, allowing him to easily dominate an opponent who has not trained for that type of fighting.

BJJ Rules: The rules of each sport encourage the use of that art's preferred fighting strategy. Judo treats a solid throw as an Ippon, or immediate win, while Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu competitions only award it points, depending on the quality of the throw. A victory in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is usually gained by the submission of the opponent, so fighters are allowed to remain on the ground for as long as necessary while they work for a submission hold. It is possible to win by submission in Judo, but if a submission hold is not achieved quickly by one of the fighters, they are required to stand back up and resume the fight from there. In effect, the rules determine the strategy of the fighters.


Founders of BJJ:


Women's Categories:

According to USABJJTournaments,women's weight classes for "Adults, Masters, Seniors", Age category "18 years or older":

- Rooster: up to 116 lbs
- Superfeather: 116-127 lbs
- Feather: 127-141 lbs
- Light: 141-154 lbs
- Middle: 154-167 lbs
- Light Heavy: 167-181 lbs
- Heavy: 181-194 lbs
- Super Heavy: 194-208 lbs
- Open: 208 and over

BJJ Culture:

The culture of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is also different from that of Judo. In an interview with Helio Gracie, the founder of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Japanese Judo practitioner Nishi Yoshinori described the Brazilian approach as being "reckless." Gracie had just admitted that he needed an operation after one of his bouts. He then admitted that he had almost died after being choked unconscious in another match. Gracie was a pioneer of Brazil's dangerous "vale tudo" fights, where all techniques were allowed. However, he also expressed great respect for Masahiko Kimura, a Judo fighter who could throw his opponents with so much force they were sometimes knocked unconscious. Judo matches are usually faster-paced and look more violent than Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu matches, but Judo is also part of the culture of Japanese martial arts with its emphasis on respect and hierarchy, while the tradition of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu emphasizes challenge matches and gaining the victory at all costs.


Women in Jujitsu. Then and Now

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Jiu-Jitsu
Craze ladies practicing Ju-Jitsu in a London West End drawing room

Sufrajitsu

Jiu-Jutsu, a centuries-old form of armed combat, roughly translates to the art of yielding. First introduced in Britain in 1898, Jiu-Jutsu was considered suitable for women, even elegant and feminine. Ju-jutsu, unlike English wrestling, is not about overpowering someone with force; instead, you skillfully yield to your opponents movements and use their weight and strength in your favor. Jujutsu became a kind of metaphor for the womens suffrage struggle, says Tony Wolf, one of the worlds top experts on archaic martial arts. Since the radical movement was small in numbers, 'jujutsuffragettes' had to rely on skill and trickery to overpower the government.

During the very early 20th century, it became fashionable for London ladies to host jujitsu parties in their parlors, often hiring expert instructors such as Yukio Tani to offer basic instruction in the Japanese art of unarmed combat. Women responding to invitation cards with the word wrestling discreetly printed in one corner would arrive to find the drawing-room furniture shifted away and large mats rolled out across the carpet. Donning uwagi (tough, short-sleeved linen jackets) and brightly-colored sashes, they would proceed to practice the throws, grips and counters that comprised the Art of Yielding.


Article "Society Women Wrestlers: Ladies Craze for Japanese Ju-jitsu" (Daily Mirror, April 4, 1904) Uyenishi class

Yukio Tani, the great Japanese exponent of ju-jitsu, who is quite confident of beating his English opponent in the great match for ?200 a side, puts in several hours a week instructing the dames and damsels of Mayfair in the noble art of (Japanese) self-defence. Lady Clara Vere de Vere has taken up Ju-jitsu , as the science is called, with vigour, and is rapidly making herself competent to tackle the burliest hooligan who ever donned cap and muffler. The writer on Saturday received the testimony of Apollo, the Japs manager, on the subject.

The strong man was at breakfast when our reporter called at his cozy flat in Shaftesbury avenue, but he readily consented to talk.

Makes Women Graceful

Ju-jitsu, said he, is particularly adapted for ladies for several reasons. In the first place, no muscular strength is required, for it is all a question of knack and quickness. In the second the science, apart from its usefulness as a means of self-defence, induces grace of carriage and develops the figure. You see, to be a competent ju-jitsuist you must hold yourself upright. Whereas, in other styles of wrestling, one has to adopt a crouching attitude, which contracts the chest and makes the figure ugly.

The fad, it appears, commenced when Tani began to take engagements to appear at private houses and give exhibitions of wrestling in the Japanese style. Fashionable hostesses began to vote Hungarian fiddlers and Polish tenors altogether out-moded after they had seen the lithe and graceful Jap and his manager give a glimpse of ju-jitsu. Sometimes, at dances, the wrestling-mats were spread on the ball-room floor between waltzes, and looking on at a bout of ju-jitsu gave the dancers a rest. The grace, the quickness, and the absence of violence which are the distinguishing marks of ju-jitsu fascinated Lady Clara Vere de Vere, and from seeing it done to wanting to do it herself was but a step. Now, Tani has his hands full putting fair and aristocratic aspirants up to the various locks and holds which constitute the Japanese art of self-defence.

Keenness of the Ladies

A girl, says the authority, will learn ju-jitsu in one-third of the time, and with one-half the trouble, compared with a man. For one thing, they are keener about it; and for another, we cannot get the men to take it seriously enough to moderate their drinking, smoking and late hours all of which are not conducive to excellence in ju-jitsu.

Again, a girl is more anxious to improve her general physique than the male thing and there is no doubt that this style of wrestling is a first-class thing for health and beauty.

An ever-present terror to women living in the country is the prowling tramp. But, armed with a knowledge of ju-jitsu, madame or mademoiselle may take her unattended walks abroad, and in the event of an encounter with the hobo, may give him the alternative of crying quarter or having an arm broken.

So fashionable is the new craze becoming that some West End stationers are printing invitation cards with Wrestling in the corner where Dancing or Music was wont to stand.

Photo at right: 1905: Ju-jitsu or the Japanese scientific wrestling, now being taught by a Japanese professor, Professor Uyenishi, of Seibouhan, Japan, to the Aldershot Gymnastic Staff, formed, perhaps, the greatest attraction at the annual gathering of the public schools at Aldershot on Friday last. The wrestling display was given after the boxing championships at the Gymnasium, Queens Avenue. One of the professors lady pupils from London more than once triumphantly floored her male opponent. Those who witnessed the exhibition came away with the conviction that the Japanese system of training wrestlers will long hold the field against all comers. Our photograph is by Charles Knight, Aldershot.


Suffrajitsu Edith Garrud

British women fighting for their voting rights were exposed to violence and intimidation as their campaign became more militant. So they taught themselves the martial art of Jiu-Jitsu. Edith Garrud who suffered from Picude violence against suffragettes became a Jiu-Jitsu pioneer and probably the first matrial art teacher. Edith Garrud was a tiny woman. Measuring 4ft 11in (150cm) in height she appeared no match for the officers of the Metropolitan Police - required to be at least 5ft 10in (178cm) tall at the time. But she had a secret weapon.

suffragettes

In the run-up to World War One, Garrud became a jiu-jitsu instructor to the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), better known as the suffragettes, taking part in an increasingly violent campaign for votes for women.

Sick of the lack of progress, they resorted to civil disobedience, marches and illegal activities including assault and arson.

The struggle in the years before the war became increasingly bitter. Women were arrested and, when they went on hunger strike, were force-fed using rubber tubes. While out on marches, many complained of being manhandled and knocked to the ground. Things took a darker turn after "Black Friday" on 18 November 1910. Image caption Black Friday protest, 1910: Suffragettes were assaulted by police and men in the crowd

A group of around 300 suffragettes met a wall of policemen outside Parliament. Heavily outnumbered, the women were assaulted by both police and male vigilantes in the crowd. Many sustained serious injuries and two women died as a result. More than 100 suffragettes were arrested.

"A lot said they had been groped by the police and male bystanders," says Elizabeth Crawford, author of The Women's Suffrage Movement: A Reference Guide. "After that, women didn't go to these demonstrations unprepared."

Some started putting cardboard over their ribs for protection. But Garrud was already teaching the WSPU to fight back. Her chosen method was the ancient Japanese martial art of jiu-jitsu. It emphasised using the attacker's force against them, channelling their momentum and targeting their pressure points.

The first connection between the suffragettes and jiu-jitsu was made at a WSPU meeting. Garrud and her husband William, who ran a martial arts school in London's Golden Square together, had been booked to attend. But William was ill, so she went alone.

"Edith normally did the demonstrating, while William did the speaking," says Tony Wolf, writer of Suffrajitsu, a trilogy of graphic novels about this aspect of the suffragette movement. "But the story goes that the WSPU's leader, Emmeline Pankhurst, encouraged Edith to do the talking for once, which she did." Image copyright Jet City Comics/Joao Vieira

Garrud began teaching some of the suffragettes. "At that time it was more about defending themselves against angry hecklers in the audience who got on stage, rather than police," says Wolf. "There had been several attempted assaults."

By about 1910 she was regularly running suffragette-only classes and had written for the WSPU's newspaper, Votes for Women. Her article stressed the suitability of jiu-jitsu for the situation in which the WSPU found itself - that is, having to deal with a larger, more powerful force in the shape of the police and government. Edith Garrud

The press noticed. Health and Strength magazine printed a satirical article called "Jiu-jitsuffragettes". Punch magazine showed a cartoon of Garrud standing alone against several policemen, entitled "The suffragette that knew jiu-jitsu". The term "suffrajitsu" soon came into common use.

They wouldn't have expected in those days that women could respond physically to that kind of action, let alone put up effective resistance," says Martin Dixon, chairman of the British Jiu-Jitsu Association. "It was an ideal way for them to handle being grabbed while in a crowd situation."

The Pankhursts agreed and encouraged all suffragettes to learn the martial art. "The police know jiu-jitsu. I advise you to learn jiu-jitsu. Women should practice it as well as men," said Sylvia Pankhurst, daughter of Emmeline, in a 1913 speech. As the years went on, confrontations between police and suffragettes became more intense. The so-called Cat and Mouse Act in 1913 allowed hunger-striking prisoners to be released and then re-incarcerated as soon as they had recovered their health.

"The WSPU felt that as Mrs Pankhurst had such a vital role to play as motivator and figurehead for the organisation that she was too important to be recaptured," says Emelyne Godfrey, author of Femininity, Crime and Self-Defence in Victorian Literature and Society.

She needed protectors so Garrud formed a group called The Bodyguard. It consisted of up to 30 women who undertook "dangerous duties," explains Godfrey. "Sometimes all they would get would be a phone call and instructions to follow a particular car."

The Bodyguard travelled overnight from London by train, their concealed clubs making the journey uncomfortable. A crowd was waiting to see Emmeline Pankhurst speak at St Andrew's Hall. But police had surrounded it, hoping to catch her.

Pankhurst evaded them on her way in by buying a ticket and pretending to be a spectator. The Bodyguard then got into position, sitting on a semi-circle of chairs behind the speaker's podium. Edith's Garrud' Class

Suddenly Pankhurst appeared and started speaking. She did so for half a minute before police tried to storm the stage.

But they became caught on barbed wire hidden in bouquets. "So about 30 suffragettes and 50 police were involved in a brawl on stage in front of 4,000 people for several minutes," says Wolf.

Eventually police overwhelmed The Bodyguard and Pankhurst was once again arrested. But the difficulty they had in dragging her away showed just how effective her guards had become.

Garrud did not just teach them physical skills. They had also learnt to trick their opponents. In 1914, Emmeline Pankhurst gave a speech from a balcony in Camden Square.

When she emerged from the house in a veil, escorted by members of The Bodyguard, the police swooped in. Despite a fierce fight she was knocked to the ground and dragged away unconscious. But when the police triumphantly unveiled her, they realised she was a decoy. The real Pankhurst had been smuggled out in the commotion.

The emphasis on skill to defeat and outwit a larger opponent was what first impressed Garrud about jiu-jitsu. She came across it when her husband William attended a martial arts exhibition in 1899 and started taking lessons.

Garrud was soon teaching it herself and became one of the first female martial art instructors in the West. In exhibitions, she would wear a red gown and invite a martial arts enthusiast dressed as a policeman to attack her.

"As far as the suffragettes were concerned, she was very much in the right place at the right time," says Wolf.

"Jiu-jitsu had become something of a society trend, with women hosting jiu-jitsu parties, where they and their friends underwent instruction."

Garrud and her jiu-jitsu students continued their fight for the vote until a bigger battle engulfed them all. At the outbreak of WW1, the suffragettes concentrated on helping the war effort.

At the end of the war, in 1918, the Representation of the People Act was finally passed. More than eight million women in the UK were given the vote. But women would not get the same voting rights as men until 1928.

As time passed, The Bodyguard and their trainer began to be forgotten. "It was the leaders that wrote the books and set the history," explains Crawford. The stories of those who helped them were less likely to be recorded.

Edith Garrud does not feature in the new film but one of its stars, Helena Bonham Carter, has paid her own tribute by changing her character's name from Caroline to Edith in her honour.

She was "an amazing woman" whose fighting method was not about brute force, Bonham Carter has said. "It was about skill."

It was this skill that helped the suffragettes take on powerful opponents. As Garrud recalled in an interview in 1965, a policeman once tried to prevent her from protesting outside Parliament. "Now then, move on, you can't start causing an obstruction here," he said. "Excuse me, it is you who are making an obstruction," she replied, and tossed him over her shoulder.

Advertisement, circa 1910: Ju-Jutsu (self-defence) for Suffragettes, private or class lessons daily, 10.30 to 7.30; special terms to W. S. P. U. members; Sunday class by arrangement; Boxing and Fencing by specialists. Edith Garrud, 9, Argyll Place, Regent Street


Why women should practice Jiu-Jitsu

Edith Garrud

In fact, there are plenty of reasons for women to practice Jiu-Jitsu other than tackling would-be rapists. According to BJJ practitioner Averi Clements, there are five reasons for women to practice BJJ.

1. It teaches you to love your body for what it can do rather than for what it looks like.
Both genders deal with the frustration of not having the perfect body, but the numbers are clear that women are much more likely to suffer from an eating disorder than men are in their lifetime.

2. You dont need to be big and strong to be good at it.
Yes, there are lots of women who are stronger, heavier, or taller than lots of men, but the vast majority of us are not. It can be really intimidating to walk into a martial arts gym and see really fit dudes beating the crap out of each other, but Jiu-Jitsu allows anyone to beat the crap out of anyone else. Isnt that beautiful?

3. The sisterhood is like no other.
The people you train with in Jiu-Jitsu are bound to become your non-biological family. Its hard not to become close with someone when youre sweating all over each other and place your safety in each others hands.

4. It smashes ideas about what a woman should or shouldnt do.
Im not the type who burns bras (those things are expensive), but my blood pressure does go up a little every time I hear someone restrict an activity or behavior to a specific gender. It blows my freaking mind that in the year 2016, women all across the globe are still being told either by the law or by society that regardless of their physical capabilities, they cant or shouldnt do certain activities that are traditionally masculine. Jiu-Jitsu is a giant middle finger to every time someone has scolded you for being unladylike or tried to put you in your place as a woman. On the mats, everyone is equal; there is no gender. You will get your butt handed to you just as much as the men do, and youll also dish out a fair bit of butt-handing yourself.

5. It makes you a positive role model for younger girls.
Jiu-Jitsu comes with plenty of benefits, and when you have a daughter, a niece, or any other young lady who wants to be you when she grows up, you pass on a lot of those benefits to her just by showing her what you do. You can give that little girl a head start on loving herself and making friends who genuinely care about her well-being.

Whether youre motivated by self-defense or something completely different, its never a bad idea to put on that gi and take your first steps on an unforgettable journey.

Actually, BJJ is a basis of the popular contemporary sport of Submission wrestling, or Grappling; 'Gi grappling' (wearing martial arts uniform 'Gi') is very similar to BJJ and their practitioners compete in both styles alternately.

In order to gain more skills, women practicing Jiu-Jitsu and BJJ sometimes train, spar and even compete with men who according to beautiful Shannon Logan "are grappling with women to their full potential, so after the matches I feel like she had gotten hit by a truck!"


First prominent female BJJ practitioners:


First Jiu-Jitsu female champions in The World Games

Petra Holzhausen (Germany). Fighting. -58kg and 68kg
1997 Lahti

Laurence Sionneau (France). Fighting +68
1997 Lahti

Patricia Hekkens (Netherlands). Fighting -62kg
2001 Akita

Nicole Sydbøge (Denmark). Fighting -70kg
2001 Akita

Vibeke Mortensen & Karina Lauridsen (Denmark) Duo Performance
2001 Akita


References

JJ Jujutsu
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
The History of Jujitsu
Jujutsu and Origins of Judo
Jiu-Jitsu History: Birth on the Battlefield
History of Jiu-Jitsu: Coming to America and the Birth of the UFC
History of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu
Why was Jiu-Jitsu marketed towards women?
'Suffrajitsu': How the suffragettes fought back using martial arts
Suffrajitsu
Bartitsu
Ju-Jitsu at the World Games
Ne-Waza
Difference between Judo and Jiu-Jitsu
What's the difference between Brazilian and Japanese jiu-jitsu?
What is the difference between judo, jiu jitsu and Brazilian jiu jitsu?
Difference Between Brazilian Jiu Jitsu & Judo
BJJ For Women
5 Reasons Why Women Should Train Jiu Jitsu (That Arent For Self Defense)
Women who changed Jiu Jitsu
9 of the best women in BJJ
Why Should Women Grapple?
The Martial Chronicles: Fighting Like a Girl


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Sport Jiu-Jitsu Episodes. Duo Performance

Jiu-Jitsu
Episode of Duo performance: Dominika Zagorski & Tom Ismar (GER) at the Jiu-Jitsu European Championships 2013, Walldorf
Holgeradam

Sport Jiu-Jitsu Episodes. Ne-Waza

First listed fighter in the pair is the red belt holder
Jiu-Jitsu
Miriam Bolosov of Israel (top) vs. Elizabeth Olbert of Austria at the European Jiu-Jitsu Cup, Hanau, 2012.
Holgeradam

Sport Jiu-Jitsu Episodes. Fighting

First listed fighter in the pair is the red belt holder
Jiu-Jitsu
Oksana Moskalenko (RUS) vs Agnieszka Bergier (POL) during their fight at the fighting tournament at the Jiu-Jitsu European Championships 2013, Walldorf
Holderadam

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Episodes

Jiu-Jitsu
Episode of BJJ grappling match. Choke
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