single combat



Female Pugilists
"Primeval female aggression". Artwork by Tatyana Of Sagittarius

Women and the 'Cruelest Sport'

The development of women's boxing was quite separate from that of other women's sports. In a different social sphere, middle-class women were struggling to get into the "respectable" world of organized sports, but found themselves seriously constrained by dominant medical ideologies about the innate physical limitations of females and their unsuitability to take part in vigorous exercise and contest. Whereas the development of mainstream sports for women was based upon notions of sexual difference, and male and female bodies in most sports are signifiers of those differences, the basic symbolism of women's boxing seemed to contradict this trend. In its most pure form, it was a celebration of female muscularity, physical strength and aggression. Powerful danger are literally inscribed in the boxers' bodies -- in their actual working muscles -- an expression of physical power, ability to inflict damage and willingness to physically compete - all these usually ascribed to men. Nevertheless, gender and sexuality received heightened expression. While the battered body of the male boxer was a symbol of the honorable defeat of heroic masculinity, the battered body of the female boxer was the very denial of the supposed essence of femininity and a symbol of brutalization and dehumanization, at the same time creating an image of exciting and animalistic sensuality. However serious the women were about their sport, because of its low-class, disreputable image, it remained "underground," or at best marginalized. Working women who used their bodies freely and powerfully were characterized as uncivilized and vampish, in distinct contrast to the listless, weak and sexually repressed image of the well-bred middle-class Victorian lady. For that reason, women's boxing always attracted male voyeurs -- not only working men, but also local dignitaries and businessmen. Its explicit sexuality (through bare breasts and the ripping of clothes, the scope for male fantasies, and potential as a surrogate for male brutality against the "weaker" sex) increased the entertainment value of women's boxing into the twentieth century.

Jennifer Hargreaves

Female Pugilists
Naked Aggression' by 'Tatyana Of Sagittarius'
From album of Drewhammond

Professional boxing is the only major American sport...
which survives as the most primitive and terrifying of contests:
two men, near-naked, fight each other in a brightly lit,
elevated space roped in like an animal pen.
The Cruelest Sport. Article by Joyce Carol Oates

Several quotations about boxing related to the matter

Jack London:
- [A boxing ring] is a place where men believed they could escape from the narrowness of womens influence into the wide free world of men.

Joyce Carol Oates:
- Boxing is without a doubt our most dramatically masculine sport.
- Boxing is for men, and is about men, and is men. A celebration of the lost religion of masculinity all the more trenchant for its being lost.
- ...boxing... a 'so-called' sport, even a 'meta-' or an 'anti-' sport: a 'vicious exploitation of maleness' as prostitution and pornography may be said to be a vicious exploitation of femaleness.
- Boxing may be a manly sport, but some of the best books on it have been written by women.
- In this world, strength of a certain kind - matched of course with intelligence and tirelessly developed skills - determines masculinity. Just as the boxer is his body, a mans masculinitys his use of his body. But it is also his triumph over anothers use of his body. The Opponent is always male, the Opponent is the rival for ones own masculinity, most fully and combatively realized Men fighting men to determine worth (i.e., masculinity) excludes women as completely as the female experience of childbirth excludes men.

Brett & Kate McKay
- Indeed, the sweet science of bruising has for its entirety history been inextricably tied up with a cultures perception and conception of manhood. This connection to cultural ideals and masculinity has given boxing a volatile history. At times when society felt its manliness to be on the wane, boxing was wildly popular and seen as the iron needed to fortify a pansified culture. At other times, people have recoiled as boxings perceived brutality, seeing the sport as evidence of a barbarism at odds with a perception of themselves as too enlightened for such pursuits. All of which makes for a fascinating history and a subject every man should know something about.

Sophie Charara:
- Ladies, men's boxing is a thing of beauty.

Fritz Giese
- Women perhaps do not always know it, but the strong man and the boxer will always be the favorites of the unconscious feminine drive The primitive instinct of the woman to detect love in masculine brutality this and more influence the unconscious, primitive drive of the female spectators and so women collect around the heroes like flies around a piece of sugar.

Edward Topol ('Russia in bed')
- Since the earliest times, when mating cavemen fought with clubs, men have fought over women. Not to mention that this is the universal law of nature: bucks fight over does, tomcats - over pussy-cats, cocks - over chickens, etc. If they do, why men shouldnt fight over us?
- As a matter of fact, there have been times when men arranged such fights in a decent way: knights fought for ladies in jousting tournaments, musketeers fenced with swords, noblemen engaged in pistol duels over ladies Unfortunately, nowadays, mens fights are much less romantic and decent. In Russia, men prefer fighting with fists which is accompanying with dirty swearing. But even such unromantic duels may please a woman if men fight over her such enjoyment came to us from our progenitrix: it is delightful to be a subject of bloody fight between males.

Elena Rychkova:
- Handsome, muscular, hyper-masculine men are sorting things out using outright brute force. It can turn on, Ill tell you! This is a powerful stimulant helping exhale sexual energy. Seeing two men physically fighting, a woman is subconsciously undergone a pristine biological mechanism: once two males fight, they fight over possessing a female.

Nadina Ricke:
- The very existence of women's boxing hinders enjoying men's boxing. I perceive a boxing match as a tough male rivalry in the most extreme outright physical embodiment. The most important for me in boxing is the fact that a man goes against a man in the ultimate dispute; my female soul is overfilled with emotions while my body languishes in languor Actually, the fact of existence of female boxers destroys the last bastion of male exclusiveness which is imperative for us women.

Anna Sidanova:
- As soon as women are loosening up, they act quite similar to men in impromptu conflict when people usually act more reflectory. However, as male animals, men need to prove their strength and manliness; they fight for dominance and social recognition in order to prove they are fit to be a mate to women. Women don't care so much about being seen as the tougher fighter; women fight to cause damage, to hurt the enemy or to humiliate her. Thats why fighting was always considered as male activity.
- According to recent studies, womens fighting is one of the strongest aphrodisiacs for men, so contemporary girl capable to fight and win in a fight receive much attention from guys.
- [In boxing and some other combat sports] the very intention of fighters is to disable an opponent by striking in the head. That is to say, unlike other sports in which participants may accidentally get a trauma, in the sports I mean, the traumas are inflicting not just intentially but inflicting brain damage is the main goal of each fighter.

Angelina Nezhnaya:
- The interest in female combat is based exceptionally upon the ludicrousness, ridiculousness, scandalousness and eroticism of these activities perverted for women. Personally for me, a female boxer is the same nonsense as a man practicing in rhythmic gymnastics.

Benjamin Wallace-Wells:
- What began as a few day-dreamy women in gyms, believing they could punch back as hard and as fast as some of the guys, has devolved into something very ugly, very violent. It documents the cheat run on working-class girls who think they might find liberation in the ring, like Rocky did, like all the guys can.

Jeff Fenech (Boxing champion):
- If anything has to be done to help the sport of boxing, the first thing we should do is stop women from fighting.

Tony Collins:
- Sexuality is in the air when guys are fighting.

Svetlana Kolotinskaya
- ... so-called "women's boxing" is three negative "UN": unskillful slow movements, unskillful weak punches and unskillful feeble defense. The God has purposely created a woman in the way to prevent her from being involved in fighting. The Creator intentionally arranged vulnerable tender women's breasts just in the hottest "battle spot".
- Boxing is a man's daring. It is a tough exciting spectacle. It is a good hardening for men and a great pleasure for women. Let men fight, box, wrestle, battle honestly and by rule. So, we women would be sure that the stronger sex has not degraded or weakened. That we still have support and defense. And that our offspring would be healthy and strong!

Stagette At Sharkey's
George Bellows' "Stag At Sharkeys - Redux" by MikeG
Publishing with permission of its owner Drew Hammond

'The Cruelest Sport' by Joyce Carol Oates. Fragment
February 13, 1992, New York Review of Books

And if the body does not do fully as much as the soul?
And if the body were not the soul, what is the soul?
Walt Whitman, I Sing the Body Electric

Joyce Carol Oates George Bellows. Knockout

Professional boxing is the only major American sport whose primary, and often murderous, energies are not coyly defected by such artifacts as balls and pucks. Though highly ritualized, and as rigidly bound by rules, traditions, and taboos as any religious ceremony, it survives as the most primitive and terrifying of contests: two men, near-naked, fight each other in a brightly lit, elevated space roped in like an animal pen (though the ropes were originally to keep rowdy spectators out); two men climb into the ring from which only one, symbolically, will climb out. (Draws do occur in boxing, but are rare, and unpopular.)

Boxing is a stylized mimicry of a fight to the death, yet its mimesis is an uncertain convention, for boxers do sometimes die in the ring, or as a consequence of a bout; their lives are sometimes, perhaps always, shortened by the stress and punishment of their careers (in training camps no less than in official fights). Certainly, as in the melancholy case of Muhammad Ali, the most acclaimed and beloved heavyweight in boxing history, the quality of the boxers post-retirement life is frequently diminished. For the great majority of boxers, past and present, life in the ring is nasty, brutish, and shortand not even that remunerative.

Yet, for inhabitants of the boxing world, the ideal conclusion of a fight is a knockout, and not a decision; and this, ideally, not the kind in which a man is counted out on his feet, still less a TKO (technical knockoutfrom injuries), but a knockout in the least ambiguous senseone man collapsed and unconscious, the other leaping about the ring with his gloves raised in victory, the very embodiment of adolescent masculine fantasy. Like a tragedy in which no one dies, the fight lacking a classic knockout seems unresolved, unfulfilled: the strength, courage, ingenuity, and desperation of neither boxer have been adequately measured. Catharsis is but partial, the Aristotelian principle of an action complete in itself has been thwarted. (Recall the fury of young Muhammad Ali at the too-readily-defeated Sonny Liston in their second, notorious title fight, of 1965: instead of going to a neutral corner, Ali stood over his fallen opponent with his fist cocked, screaming, Get up and fight, sucker!)

This is because boxings mimesis is not that of a mere game, but a powerful analogue of human struggle in the rawest of life-and-death terms. When the analogue is not evoked, as, in most fights, it is not, the action is likely to be unengaging, or dull; boxing is the art, but fighting is the passion. The delirium of the crowd at one of those matches called great must be experienced firsthand to be believed (FrazierAli I, 1971, HaglerHearns, 1986, for instance); identification with the fighters is so intense, it is as if barriers between egos dissolve, and one is in the presence of a Dionysian rite of cruelty, sacrifice, and redemption. The nearest thing to death, Ali described it, after his third title match with Joe Frazier, in 1975, which he won when the fight was stopped after the fourteenth round. Or: This is some way to make a living, isnt it? as the superlightweight Saoul Mamby said, badly battered after a title fight with the champion Billy Costello, in 1984.

A romance of (expendable) malenessin which The Fight is honored, and even great champions come, and go.

For these reasons, among others, boxing has long been Americas most popularly despised sport: a so-called sport, even a meta- or an anti- sport: a vicious exploitation of maleness as prostitution and pornography may be said to be a vicious exploitation of femaleness. It is not, contrary to common supposition, the most dangerous sport (the American Medical Association, arguing for boxings abolition, acknowledges that it is statistically less dangerous than speedway racing, thoroughbred racing, downhill skiing, professional football, et al.), but it is the most spectacularly and pointedly cruel sport, its intention being to stun ones opponents brain; to affect the orgasmic communal knockout that is the culminating point of the rising action of the ideal fight. The humanitarian argues that boxings very intentions are obscene, which sets it apart, theoretically at least, from purer (i.e., Caucasian) establishment sports bracketed above.

Boxing is only possible if there is an endless supply of young men hungry to leave their impoverished ghetto neighborhoods, more than willing to substitute the putative dangers of the ring for the more evident, possibly daily, dangers of the street; yet it is rarely advanced as a means of eradicating boxing that poverty itself be abolished; that it is the social conditions feeding boxing that are obscene. The pious hypocrisy of Caucasian moralists vis-a-vis the sport that has become almost exclusively the province of black and ethnic minorities has its analogue in a classic statement of President Bushs of some months ago, that he is worried by the amount of filth flooding America by way of televised hearings and trials: not that the Clarence ThomasAnita Hill hearing and the William Kennedy Smith rape trial revealed filth at the core of certain malefemale relations in our society, but that public airings of such, the very hearings and trials, are the problem. Ban the spectacle, and the obscenity will cease to exist.

Boxing today is very different from the boxing of the past, which allowed a man to be struck repeatedly while trying to get to his feet (DempseyWillard, 1919), or to be knocked down seven times in three wholly one-sided rounds (PattersonJohansson I, 1959), or so savagely and senselessly struck in the head with countless unanswered blows that he died in a coma ten days later (Griffith-Paret, 1962); the more immediate danger, for any boxer fighting a Don King opponent, is that the fight will be stopped prematurely, by a zealous referee protective of Kings investment.

As boxing is reformed, it becomes less satisfying on a deep, unconscious level, more nearly resembling amateur boxing; yet, as boxing remains primitive, brutal, bloody, and dangerous, it seems ever more anachronistic, if not in fact obscene, in a society with pretensions of humanitarianism. Its exemplary figure is that of the warrior, of some mythopoeic time before weapons were invented; the triumph of physical genius, in a technologically advanced world in which the physical counts for very little, set beside intellectual skills. Even in the gritty world of the underclass, who, today, would choose to fight with mere fists? Guns abound, death to ones opponents at a safe distance is possible even for children. Mike Tysons boast, after his defeat of the twelve-to-one underdog Carl Williams in a heavyweight title defense of 1989, I want to fight, fight, fight and destruct the world, strikes a poignantly hollow note, even if we knew nothing of subsequent disastrous events in Tysons life and career.

Illustration above right: George Bellows. Stag at Sharkey's, 1909
The Cleveland Museum of Art

George Bellows. Knockout
'Knockout' by George Bellows
Ink & pastel on paper. 1907
Courtesy Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville

Gaby Wood about Kate Sekules and her book "The Boxer's Heart. How I Fell in Love With the Ring"
Sunday 7 January 2001, The Observer

Kate Sekulas Kate Sekulas In her book on boxing, Joyce Carol Oates wrote that her subject was 'without doubt our most dramatically "masculine" sport'. Now Kate Sekules, a writer and journalist who has fought professionally, has written 'The Boxer's Heart', about how it feels to be a woman and become a boxer.

But surely simply doing it won't alter its content: women also have to redefine boxing for themselves. None of the myth or the romance of pugilism is set in a woman's world. Neither are the bare facts: women, for example, have to have a pregnancy test before a fight. When Sekules first tried a jab, she found that her breasts were in the way. At her first fight, she heard wolf whistles amid the roar of the crowd. Yet she herself was far from immune to the allure of the 'masculine' sport: when she first walked into Gleason's, Sekules wrote that 'part of what I'm falling in love with is the thing my very presence here will help to subvert; that is, boxing as it used to seem - an arcane testosterone ghetto'. So if women's boxing is not about maleness, what is it about?

Boxing, she says, is 'the final frontier', a way of transcending the assumed limits of our sex. A lot of attention has recently been drawn to women's boxing by the daughters of famous men - Laila Ali and Jacqui Frazier Lyde - though Sekules thinks this is a mixed blessing because 'they're no good'. Others are far better: she suggests that good women boxers are more dangerous than the men - 'we're better at locating Achilles's heels' - and says of the super lightweight world champion Lucia Rijker that she has brought the female traits of 'intuition, courage and nurturing' to this previously male territory. More generally, though, she thinks the fact that there are many more female boxers now may indicate 'that there's a lot of anger in women. I mean, I value so highly that socialized-in kindness and supportiveness of women, but this doesn't preclude it. We need a whole range of emotions available to us, including aggression, and we haven't had that this century, and probably not for quite a few centuries.' Feminism first fought for women's equal right to use their minds; now female boxers are saying they should have equal rights to use their bodies too. But ironically, the latter can do damage to the former. Sekules says she values her brain, and that she didn't, in the end, want it to get beaten to a pulp.

She contrasts the 'boxer's heart' of steel, which gives and gives punches, with the human heart that stops your gloves from hitting someone. The two are at odds, and although in the professional arena she can only fight women, she has no desire to fight women at all. The first thing she asks her trainer is whether she can fight a man.

Sekules has a theory about why men are afraid of seeing women in that position. ' One day I was training in here, and this little boy walked past and looked up - I was punching a bag, and particularly going for it at that moment - and I looked at this boy's face and it flashed through my mind? This boy sees his mother. All women are mother. And then the boys grow up, and they've always got the little boy left in them. To see that temporarily engaged in violence - even controlled and deliberate and contained - that terrifies men.' Other men, though, show more attraction than fear, and the complicated sexual tension involved in the inclusion of women in boxing cannot be denied. It is, I would say, one of the central themes of the debate. Sekules traces the history of women's boxing back to eighteenth-century London. Women, she points out, could box even before they could vote. But quite soon, this form of entertainment took on a different tone: women boxers could be found in brothels, the Victorian equivalent of the 'foxy boxing' of 1970s porn. By a nice irony, Sekules once worked as a receptionist in a brothel herself. She remembers that 'every other caller asked if we had wrestling mats', and later on, as a pro fighter in Gleason's locker room, she finds herself turning down proposals of private gigs with men in hotels. She hears that a man she spars with in the gym is a masochist - it turns him on to be hit by women, and he has been known to pay them to spar with him in private. In the lead-up to her first fight, Sekules is interviewed by a Philadelphia journalist. In the course of their conversation he says: 'There's something about watching two women duking it out that causes a tingle in men's groins.'

Nevertheless, it is not all prurience and chauvinism, since Sekules also uses sexual metaphors to describe how she feels in the ring. Of one disappointing sparring session she reports: 'I'm unsatisfied like I didn't come'. After a particularly cathartic bout she extends the analogy and adds: 'This time I did come.' She suffers from a not unrelated worry that her body, and specifically her sexual make-up, may put her at a disadvantage. She writes graphically, 'Does the fact that my body can integrate another body during sex or pregnancy makes me more permeable, and therefore more vulnerable, than a man?' The sexual element in boxing was so strong that, she says, for the time she was training seriously, boxing replaced sex in her life altogether. 'I kind of was fighting men in so many ways,' she tells me, 'I didn't even recognize it till afterwards. But at the time I thought that if I made myself vulnerable to a man sexually I would be weakened in the ring. I would have let down my guard.' 'But other things must have made you feel vulnerable anyway,' I suggest. 'Yes,' she says, 'but it was just this one really deep down way that mattered.'

In the boxing gym. Artwork by Faustino Perez

Female body in the fight

Everyone has seen women fighting with arms and legs in the rings, cages and Tatami. Everyone has seen well-built female bodies, packed in combat bras, trousers, leotards and Kimonos. Now, let's imagine how bodies of female fighters would look under these covers. How two female bodies lokk like which delivered powerful strikes at each other by arms and legs. Many artists attemted to depict battles between two naked or topless women. Their artworks help better imagine how to female bodies interact in the hand-to-hand combat and to see the fighters' emotions. In order to enhance the impression, some artist make breasts of the fighters hypertrophied and their bodies excessively muscular.


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