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They made the history

Female Sumo Wrestlers

Collision of femininities

First female heavyweight sumotori

Veronika Kozlovskaya

Female Sumo
Female Sumo. Before the bout. Ancient sketch describing the delails of the Edo period female Sumo ritual
Source Sakayaki (in Japan)

Русская версия


Sumo

The earliest Japanese historical reference to sumo traces its origins to 23 B.C., but the reference itself was recorded in the first Japanese history, Nihon Shoki, in 712, using the Chinese term jueli ("dispute" and "war"). Another entry in the same work, dated 682, uses the current term for sumo (xiangpu in Chinese). According to a legend, the hand-to-hand bout between the ancient Japanese gods Takemikazuchi and Takeminakata - two deities is considered the mythical origin of sumo wrestling. Takemikazuchi is considered as the legendary ancestor of Japan Emperors.

Sumo (Ozumo) is an ancient form of wrestling which has long been the national sport of Japan. Its origins go back to the Yayoi period (c. 300 BCE - c. 300 CE) and it incorporates many elements of the Shinto religion in its various rituals and conventions, the combination of which usually last much longer than the actual sporting contest. Still considered a sacred event, the pavilion in which sumo bouts are performed is regarded as a Shinto shrine.

Actually, the sumo round ring "dohyö" as we know it now was developed around XVI century. However, the size and the shape of the dohyö changed over time. Originally, it was a square. The sumo rules developed in the Heian period (794-1185): striking to the head, hairpulling and kicking were prohibited.

Chinese and Japanese still dispute the invention of sumo. While in Japan the first reference to sumo traces to 23 AD, in China they insist that it originated during the Han dynasty (206BC-220AD). More likely it was introduced during the Jin dynasty (265–420). Anyhow, the professional sumo which is known today originated at the Edo Period (1600-1868).

Ancient Japanese considered the naked body sacred. The old term for sumo was 'sumire' which consisted of two parts: 'nude' and 'joy'. In other words, you dress down and visit the place you feel joy. The ring-dohyö was the place where the God himself got down watching sumo wrestling. The venue was sacred because the contest was honest and unarmed. Before the bout, nude wrestlers stood in front of each other in the soothing 'Shinto' ritual.

The modern form of the sport took shape in the Edo era (1603-1868) at the Shinto shrine of Tomioka Hachimangu in Tokyo. Here, from 1684 CE during the Edo period (1600-1868 CE), regular bouts were organized, notably by the former samurai Ikazuchi Gondayu who created 72 rules (then written into the book) and the arena which adhered to today. The rules are based on the sacred Shinto rituals. Sumo wrestlers, often known colloquially as rikishi, then became professional sportsmen and sumo became the national sport of Japan. Both sumo wrestlers and sumo wrestling continue to be regarded as sacred in Japan today.


History of Women's Sumo

Sumo
Women's Sumo. Techniques and positions

From the very beginning, sumo wrestlers constituted a small elite group which is still is on the lifelong payroll fully provided by the state. In popular use, the term rikishi can mean any sumo wrestler and an alternative term to Sumotori (sumo practitioner) or the more colloquial sumosan. Within the world of sumo, rikishi is used as a catch-all term for wrestlers who are in the lower, un-salaried divisions of jonokuchi, jonidan, sandanme, and makushita. The more prestigious term sekitori is used to refer to wrestlers who have risen to the two highest divisions of juryÖ and makuuchi and who have significantly more status, privilege and salary than their lower-division counterparts, as enumerated here.

For a long time women were prohibited from even watching Sumo contests because it would be considered as desecrating of this sacred Samurai ritual. In 1873 the ban on watching Sumo was lifted and women became zealous fans of this wrestling style and contributed to revival of its past glory.

Japanese wrestling Sumo is very special and peculiar form of martial arts; it is more a lifestyle. Traditionally, it is an activity for very heavy men. The ideal weight for a sumo wrestler is anything from 400 to 600 pounds. This means that it takes not only strength and flexibility to be a sumo—it also takes the right diet. Eating is an essential part of their training. In fact, Sumo wrestlers have massive body fat deposits – in the chest, thighs and buttocks and they remind of big fat women.

Another important feature of Sumo is its standing style – the match lasts until the first touch of dohyö by any body part except sole of the foot or until the first touch beyond the dohyö by any body part.

Sumo
Women's wrestling in the palace of Emperor Yuryaku
Origins of Chinese Sports. By Lim SK

These two factors – wrestlers' heavy weight and standing limits determine shortness the bout and its relative slowness. These factors make it easier for women to participate in the sport.

Despite the traditional Sumo is the "men only" activity and for a long time women were prohibited from even watching Sumo contests let alone touching sacred dohyö, this sport of "truly men" turned out to be one of the most appropriate and fitting for women.

Since old times, Japanese and Chinese understood sexual attractiveness of women's wrestling while sumo turned out to be the most appropriate wrestling form for women which suited their body structure. The first phrase 'female sumo' can be found in the Japanese chronicle 'Nihon Shoki' written in 720 AD. The chronicle mentioned the Emperor Yuryaku who in 469 ordered two naked women to sumo wrestle before a particularly arrogant carpenter who claimed to have never made a mistake. Distracted by the women (though whether it was by their wrestling skills or their physiques, we shall never know), the carpenter blundered in what he was doing, and was summarily executed by the Emperor.

Thus, female sumo is one of the oldest forms of women's martial arts which existed alongside professional and folk sumo. Unlike another the ancient form of women's wrestling - Spartan wrestling, female sumo was a favorite spectacle which survived despite periods of prohibitions and eventually reached our times.

A wrestling style "xiangpu" similar to sumo also existed in the ancient China. At the time of the Song dynasty (960-1279) women participated in wrestling contests in this style. They competed topless and wore just short pants. For this reason, famous political thinker and historian Sima Guang (1019 – 1086) appealed to the emperor to ban women's sumo wrestling. The Emperor followed this advice and banned women's wrestling.

In the Edo era amateur sumo wrestlers often joined traveling troupes or mobile circuses which were touring through different Japan provinces and towns demonstrating their wrestling skills for money. So, "amateur sumo" was developing in parallel to the professional sumo. It was popular fun and amusement for ordinary people in the street. In fairs and town squares, locals and visiting peasants wrestled each other entertaining spectators and themselves. Female sumo was practiced in the same milieu: women competed with women and with blind men. Unlike the professional sumo, amateur wrestlers had more fun of it and less stuck to the rules. Women's matches were less fierce than men's ones; women had less incentives to win by all means - they more tried to demonstrate grace and eroticism. In the Edo era women wrested according to the same rules as men did and wore the same 'uniform' – mawashi (long cloth belt) were wrapped several times around the crotch and waist - nothing else - then the cult of the naked body was popular in Japan. Some female Sumotori enjoyed even more popularity then dancers.

While professional Sumotori competed in the Imperial Palace, in camps of Shoguns (military rulers of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868) preferred to arrange women's sumo matches. An episode of such a match is presented at right (from a movie.)

Sumo
Women's sumo match
Edo Era

Some of female Sumotori were actually skilled wrestlers. By 1744, onna-zumo's popularity had reached Edo (Tokyo). Tournaments were held at Asakusa Temple until authorities closed them down on the basis that it was immoral. However, due to popular demand, the matches continued at different locations in northern Japan. A few exhibitions even took place in Hawaii. But by 1926 this form of activity was completely banned for women. For male Sumo world it was not even the same sport.

Sumo
Women's bout in the camp of Shogun.
Movie episode

Men's professional Sumo has a long history and it is considered as a very honorable activity whereas women Sumo was tied to prostitution houses and was more for male entertainment. As a result, it is considered as a taboo subject and should not be brought up with anyone involved in the "real" Sumo world. Women's sumo matches were arranged in secret places, which might be similar to contemporary strip clubs.

There remained a written description of a female sumo wrestling match occurred at the beginning of the Western Jin Chinese dynasty (265–420). Sun Hao (courtesy name Yuanzong) who ruled as the last emperor of the kingdom of Wu ordered the court ladies to stage an exhibition of women's sumo wrestling. "Expensive decorations and fake hair buns were put on the girls' heads. The wrestling girls were virtually nude, just a strip of cloth covered the shame – the less a beautiful body covered, the better; the girls shouldn't be ashamed. Wrestling girls demonstrated strength, courage and beauty of movements…"

In the early epochs, girl wrestlers didn't have outstanding body size because Japanese liked slender petite woman. However, later it was gradually changing because body mass is one of the most critical factors in sumo. Big women have advantages on the dohyö. Someone called female sumo "the feast of female flesh."

In 1624, famous Japanese dramatist Chikamatsu Monzaemon produced an erotic show in which topless women engaged in sumo wrestling. These spectacles were also praised by Japanese poet Ihara Saikaku (1642-1693).

During Meiji Restoration (1868-1889) women's sumo was announced indecent and officially prohibited. Despite the ban, in some Japan province female sumo matches continued to happen. However, the mawashi was wrapped around the leotard which covered breasts and thighs. Then women' sumo became more competitive and began transforming from erotic show into athletic competition. In ShÖwa period (1926-1989) women's sumo nearly disappeared and was mentioned as a shoddy circus show. It continued until in 1980s they realized that the female sport of sumo was already popular in the world…

More about Women's Sumo

Recently, the history of women' sumo attracted attention of many in Japan and China. Well-known playwright and novelist Akira Hayasaka staged a play 'Female sumo' (TBS, 1991) in which female Sumotori were main characters. Besides, the university in Yamagata Prefecture, where women's sumo originated, is promoting studies on its roots.

In the first part of the 20th century, until 1960s, sumo contests between women were popular in many regions of Japan, in Taiwan and Hawaii. Unlike male Sumotori and old female Sumotori who wore mawashi over their naked body, at that time female sumo wrestlers wore mawashi belts over their underwear. Akira Hayasaka remembers women's sumo matches under a tent in Ehime Prefectures in 1941 when he was in an elementary school. He writes, “Female wrestlers wore light makeup, so they looked not only strong and gallant but also beautiful. They were like present-day Takarazuka (female theatrical troupe) stars,”

According to Akira Hayasaka, since the end of the 19th century, well- trained women wrestlers fought in tournaments and “gonin nuki” matches, in which a wrestler beat five rivals in succession. They also entertained audiences by staging popular shows called “hajikara” in which a wrestler would try to lift a bale of rice with her teeth or in events where steamed rice was pounded onto her abdomen into dough used for rice cakes.

Sumo
Women's sumo match in 1940s

In the early 20th century, pictures of women sumo wrestlers sold like hot cakes, and at one time women's sumo was more popular than the male version.

But out of consideration for men's sumo, there was no yokozuna (grand champion) in women's sumo.

Contemporary competitive women's sumo is believed to have been created by Heishiro Ishiyama, an entertainment promoter in Tendo, Yamagata Prefecture, in 1880.

“The wrestlers took pride in competing in the sacred national sport, even though they were women,” said Kunihiko Ishiyama, 65, the promoter's grandson.


Female Sumotori compete in a tournament
organized by late Heishiro Ishiyama
In the Asakuza, Tokyo in 1958.
Photo from article
Women's sumo re-evaluated. Japanese Times

In 2004, Yasuo Endo, 57, who runs a “chanko” (sumo wrestlers' stew) restaurant in Matsuyama, Ehime Prefecture, published a biography of his mother, Özeki Wakamidori, through the Asahi Shimbun Publishing Co. “I wanted to let it be known that my mother was the first woman to go up on the sumo ring, which was exclusively for men,” he said.

Matsuno Miura, 90, a former women's Özeki, still lives in the city of Tendo. “I wrestled for about 10 years. I injured my leg in a hajikara, but I am proud of having been a woman wrestler,” Miura said. The sumo world today is closed to women, with a persistent prejudice against them, and many people related to women's sumo remain tight-lipped about the sport.

But Koichi Sato, a history expert who lectures on women's sumo at Tohoku University of Art and Design in Yamagata Prefecture, said it is time to give women's sumo its due.

Imagine a feminine lady with a gentle nature, maybe overweight or having a huge bust or massive thighs; maybe all three in one... Could such a woman practice a competitive sport, particularly a combat contact sport? Unlikely – many might say and would be mistaken! There is such a sport – exactly for curvy women! Paradoxically, the old traditional martial art, exclusively for giant men – Sumo has become such a sport. Female Sumo is extremely beautiful and sexy spectacle, no wonder that in the past contests between female Sumotori were held particularly to arouse men.

There is no grueling sweaty full-contact face-off in female Sumo contests; almost every single match lasts less than a minute. There are no broken noses and black eyes as well in this game. It is a noble activity of solid serious and high-minded ladies.

Although a Sumo match is a tough speedy contest, it is also an exotic "dance of heavyweights"; such extravagant grace pirouettes and "flutters" appear on the dohyö, that even habitue of sport events consider it breathtaking! Once women have overcome all obstacles and stepped on the dohyö, this "exclusively men's sport" happened to be not just appropriate for women but also really serve their turn. There is almost no danger for omen to get a trauma practicing Sumo.

Fast development and spike in popularity of female sumo in the world after 1990s increased a chance for sumo to become an Olympic sport because one of the conditions for an Olympic sport is participating women in it.

Currently, regular female sumo championships of the world, continents, countries and regions are held. This sport turns out to be very feminine and become extremely popular all over the world. Women from different countries representing completely different cultures can be seen on the dohyö. For example, a 360-pound Japanese lady (which is difficult to imagine considering traditional stereotype of a slim Japanese little lady) and blond Estonian or German woman.

So, two giantesses face each other in a small circle with the diameter 4.55m (15 feet) where literally no space to turn. The wrestler lost the match who first touches dohyö by any part of her body except bare feet or first finds herself beyond the dohyö. Just as simple. Such simple rules allow everyone even a novice in the sport to understand the course of events on the dohyö and the outcome of any match. Simple and fascinating! Sumo wrestlers develop unusual for power fight high sensitivity. You must precisely feel your and the opponent's positions on the dohyö, its borders and dispositions of both bodies. Besides, you must feel not only opponent's moves but also her intentions and forestall them. In the old times, the dohyö was edged by sharpened short bamboo pegs, so the fear of injury or even death increased wrestlers' sensitivity. Intuition is one of the most important qualities in sumo and it is well known that women have better intuition than men.


Old female Sumo. Illustration


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Contemporary sport of Sumo

Sumo. Initial position
Sumo. Initial position

The main goal of a sumo wrestler (Sumotori) – to push the opponent out of dohyö or force him/her to touch the dohyö by any body part except feet.

The winner of a sumo bout is either:

- The first wrestler to force his/her opponent to step out of the ring
- The first wrestler to force his/her opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the bottom of his/her feet.

Also, a number of other less common rules can be used to determine the winner. For example, a wrestler using an illegal technique (or kinjite) automatically loses, as does one whose mawashi (or belt) comes completely undone. A wrestler failing to show up for his bout (including through a prior injury) also automatically loses (fusenpai).

Matches consist solely of a single round and often last only a few seconds, as usually one wrestler is quickly ousted from the circle or thrown to the ground. However, they can occasionally last for several minutes. Each match is preceded by an elaborate ceremonial ritual. Traditionally, sumo wrestlers are renowned for their great girth and body mass, which is often a winning factor in sumo.

Unlike amateur sumo, no weight divisions are used in professional sumo, and considering the range of body weights in sumo, an individual wrestler can sometimes face an opponent twice his own weight. However, with superior technique, smaller wrestlers can control and defeat much larger opponents

After the winner is declared, an off-stage gy&o uml;ji (or referee) determines the kimarite (or winning technique) used in the bout, which is then announced to the audience.

Sumo. Culmination
Sumo. Culmination

On rare occasions, the referee or judges may award the win to the wrestler who touched the ground first. This happens if both wrestlers touch the ground at nearly the same time and it is decided that the wrestler who touched the ground second had no chance of winning, his opponent's superior sumo having put him in an irrecoverable position. The losing wrestler is referred to as being shini-tai ("dead body") in this case.

Sumo matches take place in a dohyö: a ring, 4.55 m (14.9 ft.) in diameter and 16.26 m2 (175.0 sq. ft.) in area, of rice-straw bales on top of a platform made of clay mixed with sand. A new dohyö is built for each tournament by the bout callers (or yobidashi). At the center are two white lines, the shikiri-sen, behind which the wrestlers position themselves at the start of the bout. A roof resembling that of a Shinto shrine may be suspended over the dohyö.

Sumo. Culmination
Sumo. Culmination

The six divisions in professional sumo are: makuuchi (maximum 42 wrestlers), juryÖ (fixed at 28 wrestlers), makushita (fixed at 120 wrestlers), sandanme (fixed at 200 wrestlers), jonidan (about 185 wrestlers), and jonokuchi (around 40 wrestlers). Wrestlers enter sumo in the lowest jonokuchi division, and ability permitting, work their way up to the top division. A broad demarcation in the sumo world can be seen between the wrestlers in the top two divisions known as sekitori and those in the four lower divisions, known commonly by the more generic term rikishi. The ranks receive different levels of compensation, privileges, and status

As of 2006, the monthly salary figures for makuuchi (in Japanese yen) were:
(Yokozuna Asashoryu performing the distinctive dohyö-iri of his rank)
- Yokozuna: 2,820,000, about US$30,500
- Özeki: 2,347,000, about $25,000
- San'yaku: 1,693,000, about $18,000
- Maegashira: 1,309,000 or about $14,000
- JuryÖ: 1,036,000, about $11,000

As it's said, like some other sports there are two categories of sumo: professional and amateur. Sumo. Amateur sumo is represented by the International Sumo Federation (IFS).

The International Sumo Federation (ISF) is the largest international governing body of sport Sumo with over 87 member countries. It was formed in 1992 and is the only Sumo organization recognized by the International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency. International Sumo Federation has 87 established National sumo Federations. ISF encourages the sport's development worldwide, including holding international championships. A key aim of the federation is to have Sumo recognized as an Olympic sport. Accordingly, amateur tournaments are divided into weight classes.

The rules of amateur Sumo are essentially the same as in professional Sumo, with only a few differences. In amateur Sumo there is less emphasis on the religious and ritual aspects of Sumo. There are two types of dohyö – the earth dohyö and the mat dohyö. The earthen dohyö is the same as in professional Sumo, whereas the mat dohyö is made up of a plastic sheet with attached tawara being placed over mats. IFS often donates mat dohyö and Mawashi to National Sumo Federations to help promote Sumo. There are gyoji (referees), but they wear a uniform similar to amateur boxing referees – a white suit with a black bow tie. Out of respect for different religions and cultures, male wrestlers are allowed to wear spats under the Mawashi, and female wrestlers must wear a leotard under the Mawashi.

Interest in Shin Sumo (women's Sumo) is growing and 1997 saw the first major Sumo championship for women held in Japan. In October 2001, on the occasion of the 10th Sumo World Championships, that we held the 1st Shin Sumo World Championships in Aomori, Japan. In 2006 both the 14th Sumo World Championships and 5th Shin Sumo World Championships will be held on October 15th, 2006 in Sakai city, Osaka, Japan.

There are three weight classes in the amateur sumo (for men and women) and absolute class.

Women's weight classes:

- Lightweight up to 65 kg (143 lb.)
- Middleweight up to 80 kg (180 lb.)
- Heavyweight over 80 kg (180 lb.)

Sumo. Culmination
Sumo. Culmination

As in any combat sport, super-heavyweights attract the most interest of audience since, as a matter of fact, this form of wrestling is designed for them (that is in accordance to the laws of mechanics) although Sumotori insist on importance of skills and technique. In 2000s two massive ladies were especially remembered on the - dohyö were winning the hearts of fans - Veronika Kozlovskaya form Belarus (2001 World champion) and Olesya Kovalenko (2000 World champion) from Russia. Another superheavyweight star is Ekaterina Keyb from Russia. Her height is 5'11" and shoe size is 12 (American biggest men's size); in the peak of her athletic career she had weight 352lbs (160kg).

Sumo
In sumo a big bosom
is not a disadvantage

The first time women participated in the Sumo World Championships was in 2001, in Aomori, Japan.
The first winners in individual competitions were:
- Openweight Sandra Köppen (Germany)
- Heavyweight Veronika Kozlovskaya (Belarus)
- Middleweight Satomi Ishigaya (Japan)
- Lightweight Lene Aanes (Norway)

Germany became the first team champion in the women's division.

Second World Sumo Championships with women participating was held in 2002, in Kraków, Poland. Winners: Rie Tsuihiji (Japan), Olesya Kovalenko (Russia) , Edyta Witkowska (Poland) and Satomi Ishigaya (Japan).

Recently, female Sumo seemed to attract the most attention of the media - the number of essays, reports and interview regarding the topic seems to exceed the number of such publications about the rest of female combative sports. However, this noble martial art and combat sport sometimes is considered as a show designed for demonstration of plentiful female flesh.

So, what the reason of that high attention to women's Sumo? According to heavyweight Sumotori Olesya Kovalenko, this form of wrestling is the most natural for women since in a spontaneous skirmish they often use shoves and pushes. At the same time, she categorically disapproves women participating in weightlifting. She also considers Sumo to be a very sexy sport. In this connection, it should be noted that even a traditional man-Sumotori looks like a plump woman (let those noble people excuse us). The more so wrestling of real plump ladies is simply a feast of female element and female flesh. It's quite possible that Sumo is the most harmonious and spectacular style of female combative sports and it is more than the others right for women. The body contact is not that tight and there are no pouncing, holds and clutches, so possibilities of traumas of breasts and other fragile female parts is minimized. Heavyweights not only don't feel any discomfort but also have advantages. Besides, unlike other combative sports, Sumo moves are not too abrupt which better matches women's nature. No wonder, Sumo is becoming extremely popular women's sport and fun.

Sumo is exceptionally popular amateur self-organized entertainment, a form of fungrappling. It is easy going, straightforward and non-violent contest, in which women feel themselves comfortable. People of any bodily constitution, particularly overweighed people are welcomed in amateur Sumo.

СSid Hoare, president of the British Sumo Association, knows that female recruitment can be pretty difficult. He claims that it's difficult to get women doing Sumo. You can't go up to a woman and say, "Hey, I think you'd be good at Sumo." . However, the most of female Sumotori look very feminine, especially when competing each other.

Veronika Kozlovskaya

Veronika Kozlovskaya
Veronika Kozlovskaya

Veronika Kozlovskaya of Belarus became the very first world sumo championess in the heavyweight class. By looking at this classy and massy woman you barely would figure out that she is a dangerous martial artist proficient in Judo, Sambo and Sumo. Veronika saw sumo matches being in Japan at the 1995 Universiade. Then the hosts set up a dohyö (round venue for sumo bouts) where young Sumotori demonstrated techniques and invited volunteers to test themselves. Perhaps, she tried then… Later, during Judo training trip in Kodokan she watched broadcasting sumo matches in the hotel lobby with a great interest. Bulky but flexible wrestlers having great jumping ability amazed her.

Veronika Kozlovskaya managed to become the first female sumo champion in the heavy category (her weight was then 140kg/309Lbs) without any serious preliminary training. Prominent Sumotori Eduard Grams offered her to participate in the world championship in Aomori, Japan. It was the first sumo championship included the women's tournament. And Veronika accepted the invitation. She didn't expect that would become a world champion at her debut. The toughest opponent was Japanese giantess Rie Tsuihiji in the semi-final. This is how Veronika recalls that, "The opponent was shorter than me and bigger [150kg/331Lbs]. It was easier to jump over her than bypass. I thought I wouldn't withstand her speed and pressure. I decided to resort to a trick. Just before the beginning I looked up at my vis-s-vis and gave her a wink. It bounced back. The Japanese fiercely rushed at me but missed me while I tripped her down. After the match her trainer come to me and asked how long I had been training. Several versions cast about in my mind: to say the first year - he would get unconscious; to say a month - he would get heart attack; to say it was the first time in any championship - he would die on the spot. I decided to choose the most harmless version: the first year. He looked stunned.

Answering the question of Elmira Horovets what attracted her in contests on dohyö, Kozlovskaya said:
"The well-known saying 'brevity is the soul of wit' can explain the reason of my devotion to sumo. The lasting of a match is very short; that's why adrenalin is pumping into the body like crazy. Sometimes you have 20 seconds to figure out how to win the battle. The circle is quite small – two steps and you are on the brink. Above all, you must calculate how not to fall to pieces. Push her out, throw her, trick her – on the dohyö any means to an end. The stronger psyche, the more chances to win. Usually, men stand longer in the clinch to determine who prevails; women are more emotional but you must try to control yourself.

On top of everything else, sumo is a very showy and spectacular sport. In Judo and Sambo spectators must be knowledgeable about the rules and techniques. Sometimes you see a throw but not sure if it is scored. Not to speak of the Ippon which is always the most disputable position. Sumo is straight forward and comprehensible for an everyman.



Renewal: June 2017

Exclusive of the Female Single Combat Club


Sources

Women's sumo re-evaluated. Japanese Times
Female Sumo (Japanese)
Female sumo of Imari (1954) (Japanese)
Sumo World Championship
Sakayaki (по-японски)
От сумо и дзюдо не зарекайся
Вероника Козловская: когда улыбки были большими (in Russian)
Miyako Daimo Sumo story
"Little Miss Whalebone" - Female Sumo Champ of Old Japan





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